Geodon (Page 6 of 9)

8.2 Lactation

Risk Summary

Limited data from a published case report indicate the presence of ziprasidone in human milk. Although there are no reports of adverse effects on a breastfed infant exposed to ziprasidone via breast milk, there are reports of excess sedation, irritability, poor feeding, and extrapyramidal symptoms (tremors and abnormal muscle movements) in infants exposed to other atypical antipsychotics through breast milk (see Clinical Considerations). There is no information on the effects of ziprasidone on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for GEODON and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from GEODON or from the mother’s underlying condition.

Clinical Considerations

Infants exposed to GEODON should be monitored for excess sedation, irritability, poor feeding, and extrapyramidal symptoms (tremors and abnormal muscle movements).

8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential

Infertility

Females

Based on the pharmacologic action of ziprasidone (D2 antagonism), treatment with GEODON may result in an increase in serum prolactin levels, which may lead to a reversible reduction in fertility in females of reproductive potential [see Warnings and Precautions (5.15) and Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)].

8.4 Pediatric Use

The safety and effectiveness of ziprasidone in pediatric patients have not been established.

8.5 Geriatric Use

Of the total number of subjects in clinical studies of ziprasidone, 2.4 percent were 65 and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. Nevertheless, the presence of multiple factors that might increase the pharmacodynamic response to ziprasidone, or cause poorer tolerance or orthostasis, should lead to consideration of a lower starting dose, slower titration, and careful monitoring during the initial dosing period for some elderly patients.

Ziprasidone intramuscular has not been systematically evaluated in elderly patients (65 years and over).

8.6 Renal Impairment

Because ziprasidone is highly metabolized, with less than 1% of the drug excreted unchanged, renal impairment alone is unlikely to have a major impact on the pharmacokinetics of ziprasidone. The pharmacokinetics of ziprasidone following 8 days of 20 mg twice daily dosing were similar among subjects with varying degrees of renal impairment (n=27), and subjects with normal renal function, indicating that dosage adjustment based upon the degree of renal impairment is not required. Ziprasidone is not removed by hemodialysis.

Intramuscular ziprasidone has not been systematically evaluated in elderly patients or in patients with hepatic or renal impairment. As the cyclodextrin excipient is cleared by renal filtration, ziprasidone intramuscular should be administered with caution to patients with impaired renal function [see Clinical Pharmacology (12)].

8.7 Hepatic Impairment

As ziprasidone is cleared substantially by the liver, the presence of hepatic impairment would be expected to increase the AUC of ziprasidone; a multiple-dose study at 20 mg twice daily for 5 days in subjects (n=13) with clinically significant (Childs-Pugh Class A and B) cirrhosis revealed an increase in AUC 0–12 of 13% and 34% in Childs-Pugh Class A and B, respectively, compared to a matched control group (n=14). A half-life of 7.1 hours was observed in subjects with cirrhosis compared to 4.8 hours in the control group.

8.8 Age and Gender Effects

In a multiple-dose (8 days of treatment) study involving 32 subjects, there was no difference in the pharmacokinetics of ziprasidone between men and women or between elderly (>65 years) and young (18 to 45 years) subjects. Additionally, population pharmacokinetic evaluation of patients in controlled trials has revealed no evidence of clinically significant age or gender-related differences in the pharmacokinetics of ziprasidone. Dosage modifications for age or gender are, therefore, not recommended.

8.9 Smoking

Based on in vitro studies utilizing human liver enzymes, ziprasidone is not a substrate for CYP1A2; smoking should therefore not have an effect on the pharmacokinetics of ziprasidone. Consistent with these in vitro results, population pharmacokinetic evaluation has not revealed any significant pharmacokinetic differences between smokers and nonsmokers.

9 DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE

9.3 Dependence

Ziprasidone has not been systematically studied, in animals or humans, for its potential for abuse, tolerance, or physical dependence. While the clinical trials did not reveal any tendency for drug-seeking behavior, these observations were not systematic and it is not possible to predict on the basis of this limited experience the extent to which ziprasidone will be misused, diverted, and/or abused once marketed. Consequently, patients should be evaluated carefully for a history of drug abuse, and such patients should be observed closely for signs of ziprasidone misuse or abuse (e.g., development of tolerance, increases in dose, drug-seeking behavior).

10 OVERDOSAGE

10.1 Human Experience

In premarketing trials involving more than 5400 patients and/or normal subjects, accidental or intentional overdosage of oral ziprasidone was documented in 10 patients. All of these patients survived without sequelae. In the patient taking the largest confirmed amount, 3,240 mg, the only symptoms reported were minimal sedation, slurring of speech, and transitory hypertension (200/95).

Adverse reactions reported with ziprasidone overdose included extrapyramidal symptoms, somnolence, tremor, and anxiety. [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)]

10.2 Management of Overdosage

In case of acute overdosage, establish and maintain an airway and ensure adequate oxygenation and ventilation. Intravenous access should be established, and gastric lavage (after intubation, if patient is unconscious) and administration of activated charcoal together with a laxative should be considered. The possibility of obtundation, seizure, or dystonic reaction of the head and neck following overdose may create a risk of aspiration with induced emesis.

Cardiovascular monitoring should commence immediately and should include continuous electrocardiographic monitoring to detect possible arrhythmias. If antiarrhythmic therapy is administered, disopyramide, procainamide, and quinidine carry a theoretical hazard of additive QT-prolonging effects that might be additive to those of ziprasidone.

Hypotension and circulatory collapse should be treated with appropriate measures such as intravenous fluids. If sympathomimetic agents are used for vascular support, epinephrine and dopamine should not be used, since beta stimulation combined with α1 antagonism associated with ziprasidone may worsen hypotension. Similarly, it is reasonable to expect that the alpha-adrenergic-blocking properties of bretylium might be additive to those of ziprasidone, resulting in problematic hypotension.

In cases of severe extrapyramidal symptoms, anticholinergic medication should be administered. There is no specific antidote to ziprasidone, and it is not dialyzable. The possibility of multiple drug involvement should be considered. Close medical supervision and monitoring should continue until the patient recovers.

11 DESCRIPTION

GEODON is an atypical antipsychotic available as capsules (ziprasidone hydrochloride) for oral administration and as an injection (ziprasidone mesylate) for intramuscular use only. Ziprasidone is a psychotropic agent that is chemically unrelated to phenothiazine or butyrophenone antipsychotic agents. It has a molecular weight of 412.94 (free base), with the following chemical name: 5-[2-[4-(1,2-benzisothiazol-3-yl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-6-chloro-1,3-dihydro-2H -indol-2-one. The empirical formula of C21 H21 ClN4 OS (free base of ziprasidone) represents the following structural formula:

Chemical Structure
(click image for full-size original)

GEODON capsules contain a monohydrochloride, monohydrate salt of ziprasidone. Chemically, ziprasidone hydrochloride monohydrate is 5-[2-[4-(1,2-benzisothiazol-3-yl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-6-chloro-1,3-dihydro-2H -indol-2-one, monohydrochloride, monohydrate. The empirical formula is C21 H21 ClN4 OS ∙ HCl ∙ H2 O and its molecular weight is 467.42. Ziprasidone hydrochloride monohydrate is a white to slightly pink powder.

GEODON capsules are supplied for oral administration in 20 mg (blue/white), 40 mg (blue/blue), 60 mg (white/white), and 80 mg (blue/white) capsules. GEODON capsules contain ziprasidone hydrochloride monohydrate, lactose, magnesium stearate and pregelatinized starch. Each capsule for oral use contains ziprasidone hydrochloride monohydrate equivalent to either 20 mg, 40 mg, 60 mg, or 80 mg of ziprasidone.

GEODON for Injection contains a lyophilized form of ziprasidone mesylate trihydrate. Chemically, ziprasidone mesylate trihydrate is 5-[2-[4-(1,2-benzisothiazol-3-yl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-6-chloro-1,3-dihydro-2H -indol-2-one, methanesulfonate, trihydrate. The empirical formula is C21 H21 ClN4 OS ∙ CH3 SO3 H ∙ 3H2 O and its molecular weight is 563.09.

GEODON for Injection is available in a single-dose vial as ziprasidone mesylate (20 mg ziprasidone/mL when reconstituted according to label instructions) [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)]. Each mL of ziprasidone mesylate for injection (when reconstituted) contains 20 mg of ziprasidone and 4.7 mg of methanesulfonic acid solubilized by 294 mg of sulfobutylether β-cyclodextrin sodium (SBECD).

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