A potential interaction between oral miconazole and sulfonylureas leading to severe hypoglycemia has been reported. Whether this interaction also occurs with other dosage forms of miconazole is not known.
There may be an interaction between glimepiride and inhibitors (e.g., fluconazole) and inducers (e.g., rifampin) of cytochrome P450 2C9. Fluconazole may inhibit the metabolism of glimepiride, causing increased plasma concentrations of glimepiride which may lead to hypoglycemia. Rifampin may induce the metabolism of glimepiride, causing decreased plasma concentrations of glimepiride which may lead to worsening glycemic control.
Colesevelam can reduce the maximum plasma concentration and total exposure of glimepiride when the two are coadministered. However, absorption is not reduced when glimepiride is administered 4 hours prior to colesevelam. Therefore, glimepiride should be administered at least 4 hours prior to colesevelam.
Available data from a small number of published studies and postmarketing experience with glimepiride use in pregnancy over decades have not identified any drug associated risks for major birth defects, miscarriage, or adverse maternal outcomes. However, sulfonylureas (including glimepiride) cross the placenta and have been associated with neonatal adverse reactions such as hypoglycemia. Therefore, glimepiride should be discontinued at least two weeks before expected delivery (see Clinical Considerations). Poorly controlled diabetes in pregnancy is also associated with risks to the mother and fetus (see Clinical Considerations). In animal studies (see Data) , there were no effects on embryo-fetal development following administration of glimepiride to pregnant rats and rabbits at oral doses approximately 4000 times and 60 times the maximum human dose based on body surface area, respectively. However, fetotoxicity was observed in rats and rabbits at doses 50 times and 0.1 times the maximum human dose, respectively.
The estimated background risk of major birth defects is 6% to 10% in women with pregestational diabetes with a HbA1c >7% and has been reported to be as high as 20% to 25% in women with a HbA1c >10%. The estimated background risk of miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively.
Disease-associated maternal and/or embryo-fetal risk
Poorly controlled diabetes in pregnancy increases the maternal risk for diabetic ketoacidosis, preeclampsia, spontaneous abortions, preterm delivery, and delivery complications. Poorly controlled diabetes increases the fetal risk for major birth defects, still birth, and macrosomia-related morbidity.
Fetal/neonatal adverse reactions
Neonates of women with gestational diabetes who are treated with sulfonylureas during pregnancy may be at increased risk for neonatal intensive care admission and may develop respiratory distress, hypoglycemia, birth injury, and be large for gestational age. Prolonged severe hypoglycemia, lasting 4 to 10 days, has been reported in neonates born to mothers receiving a sulfonylurea at the time of delivery and has been reported with the use of agents with a prolonged half-life. Observe newborns for symptoms of hypoglycemia and respiratory distress and manage accordingly.
Dose adjustments during pregnancy and the postpartum period
Due to reports of prolonged severe hypoglycemia in neonates born to mothers receiving a sulfonylurea at the time of delivery, glimepiride should be discontinued at least two weeks before expected delivery (see Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions).
In animal studies, there was no increase in congenital anomalies, but an increase in fetal deaths occurred in rats and rabbits at glimepiride doses 50 times (rats) and 0.1 times (rabbits) the maximum recommended human dose (based on body surface area). This fetotoxicity was observed only at doses inducing maternal hypoglycemia and is believed to be directly related to the pharmacologic (hypoglycemic) action of glimepiride, as has been similarly noted with other sulfonylureas.
Breastfed infants of lactating women using glimepiride should be monitored for symptoms of hypoglycemia (see Clinical Considerations). It is not known whether glimepiride is excreted in human milk and there are no data on the effects of glimepiride on milk production. Glimepiride is present in rat milk [see Data]. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for glimepiride and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from glimepiride or from the underlying maternal condition.
Monitoring for adverse reactions
Monitor breastfed infants for signs of hypoglycemia (e.g., jitters, cyanosis, apnea, hypothermia, excessive sleepiness, poor feeding, seizures).
During prenatal and postnatal studies in rats, significant concentrations of glimepiride were present in breast milk and the serum of the pups. Offspring of rats exposed to high levels of glimepiride during pregnancy and lactation developed skeletal deformities consisting of shortening, thickening, and bending of the humerus during the postnatal period. These skeletal deformations were determined to be the result of nursing from mothers exposed to glimepiride.
The pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety of glimepiride have been evaluated in pediatric patients with type 2 diabetes as described below. Glimepiride is not recommended in pediatric patients because of its adverse effects on body weight and hypoglycemia.
The pharmacokinetics of a 1 mg single dose of glimepiride was evaluated in 30 patients with type 2 diabetes (male = 7; female = 23) between ages 10 and 17 years. The mean (± SD) AUC (0-last) (339±203 ng•hr/mL), C max (102±48 ng/mL) and t 1/2 (3.1±1.7 hours) for glimepiride were comparable to historical data from adults (AUC (0-last) 315±96 ng•hr/mL, C max 103±34 ng/mL and t 1/2 5.3±4.1 hours).
The safety and efficacy of glimepiride in pediatric patients was evaluated in a single-blind, 24-week trial that randomized 272 patients (8 to 17 years of age) with type 2 diabetes to glimepiride (n=135) or metformin (n=137). Both treatment-naïve patients (those treated with only diet and exercise for at least 2 weeks prior to randomization) and previously treated patients (those previously treated or currently treated with other oral antidiabetic medications for at least 3 months) were eligible to participate. Patients who were receiving oral antidiabetic agents at the time of study entry discontinued these medications before randomization without a washout period. Glimepiride was initiated at 1 mg, and then titrated up to 2, 4, or 8 mg (mean last dose 4 mg) through Week 12, targeting a self- monitored fasting fingerstick blood glucose < 126 mg/dL. Metformin was initiated at 500 mg twice daily and titrated at Week 12 up to 1000 mg twice daily (mean last dose 1365 mg).
After 24 weeks, the overall mean treatment difference in HbA1c between glimepiride and metformin was 0.2%, favoring metformin (95% confidence interval -0.3% to +0.6%).
Based on these results, the trial did not meet its primary objective of showing a similar reduction in HbA1c with glimepiride compared to metformin.
|Treatment-Naïve Patients *||N=69||N=72|
|Change from baseline (adjusted LS mean) †||-1.2||-1.0|
|Adjusted Treatment Difference ‡||0.2 (-0.3; 0.6)|
|Previously Treated Patients *||N=57||N=55|
Change from baseline (adjusted LS mean) †
|Adjusted Treatment Difference ‡ (95%CI)||0.4 (-0.4; 1.2)|
|Body Weight (kg) *||N=126||N=129|
|Change from baseline (adjusted LS mean) †||0.7||2.0|
|Adjusted Treatment Difference ‡ (95% CI)||1.3 (0.3; 2.3)|
The profile of adverse reactions in pediatric patients treated with glimepiride was similar to that observed in adults [see Adverse Reactions ( 6)].
Hypoglycemic events documented by blood glucose values <36 mg/dL were observed in 4% of pediatric patients treated with glimepiride and in 1% of pediatric patients treated with metformin. One patient in each treatment group experienced a severe hypoglycemic episode (severity was determined by the investigator based on observed signs and symptoms).
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