Glipizide (Page 2 of 5)

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of glipizide extended-release tablets. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

• Abdominal pain
• Cholestatic and hepatocellular forms of liver injury accompanied by jaundice
• Leukopenia, agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] , aplastic anemia, pancytopenia
• Hepatic porphyria and disulfiram-like reactions
• Hyponatremia and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion
• Rash
• There have been reports of gastrointestinal irritation and gastrointestinal bleeding with use of another drug with this extended release formulation.

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

7.1 Drugs Affecting Glucose Metabolism

A number of medications affect glucose metabolism and may require glipizide extended-release tablets dose adjustment and close monitoring for hypoglycemia or worsening glycemic control.
The following are examples of medication that may increase the glucose lowering effect of glipizide extended-release tablets, increase the susceptibility to and/or intensity of hypoglycemia: antidiabetic agents, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blocking agents, disopyramide, fibrates, fluoxetine, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, pentoxifylline, pramlintide, propoxyphene, salicylates, somatostatin analogs (e.g., octreotide), sulfonamide antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, chloramphenicol, probenecid, coumarins, voriconazole, H2 receptor antagonists, and quinolones. When these medications are administered to a patient receiving glipizide extended-release tablets, monitor the patient closely for hypoglycemia. When these medications are discontinued from a patient receiving glipizide extended-release tablets, monitor the patient closely for worsening glycemic control.
The following are examples of medication that may reduce the glucose-lowering effect of glipizide extended-release tablets, leading to worsening glycemic control: atypical antipsychotics (e.g., olanzapine and clozapine), corticosteroids, danazol, diuretics, estrogens, glucagon, isoniazid, niacin, oral contraceptives, phenothiazines, progestogens (e.g., in oral contraceptives), protease inhibitors, somatropin, sympathomimetic agents (e.g., albuterol, epinephrine, terbutaline), thyroid hormones, phenytoin, nicotinic acid, and calcium channel blocking drugs. When such drugs are administered to patients receiving glipizide extended-release tablets, monitor the patients closely for worsening glycemic control. When these medications are discontinued from patients receiving glipizide extended-release tablets, monitor the patient closely for hypoglycemia.
Alcohol, beta-blockers, clonidine, and reserpine may lead to either potentiation or weakening of the glucose-lowering effect. Increased frequency of monitoring may be required when glipizide extended-release tablets is co-administered with these drugs.
The signs of hypoglycemia may be reduced or absent in patients taking sympatholytic drugs such as beta-blockers, clonidine, guanethidine, and reserpine. Increased frequency of monitoring may be required when glipizide extended-release tablets is co-administered with these drugs.

7.2 Miconazole

Monitor patients closely for hypoglycemia when glipizide extended-release tablets are co-administered with miconazole. A potential interaction between oral miconazole and oral hypoglycemic agents leading to severe hypoglycemia has been reported [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

7.3 Fluconazole

Monitor patients closely for hypoglycemia when glipizide extended-release tablets are co-administered with fluconazole. Concomitant treatment with fluconazole increases plasma concentrations of glipizide, which may lead to hypoglycemia [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

7.4 Colesevelam

Glipizide extended-release tablets should be administered at least 4 hours prior to the administration of colesevelam. Colesevelam can reduce the maximum plasma concentration and total exposure of glipizide when the two are coadministered [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Risk Summary

Available data from a small number of published studies and postmarketing experience with glipizide extended-release tablets use in pregnancy over decades have not identified any drug associated risks for major birth defects, miscarriage, or adverse maternal outcomes. However, sulfonylureas (including glipizide) cross the placenta and have been associated with neonatal adverse reactions such as hypoglycemia. Therefore, glipizide extended-release tablets should be discontinued at least two weeks before expected delivery (see Clinical Considerations). Poorly controlled diabetes in pregnancy is also associated with risks to the mother and fetus (see Clinical Considerations). In animal studies, there were no effects on embryofetal development following administration of glipizide to pregnant rats and rabbits during organogenesis at doses 833 times and 8 times the human dose based on body surface area, respectively. However, increased pup mortality was observed in rats administered glipizide from gestation day 15 throughout lactation at doses 2 times the maximum human dose based on body surface area (see Data).

The estimated background risk of major birth defects is 6 to 10% in women with pre-gestational diabetes with a HbA1c >7 and has been reported to be as high as 20 to 25% in women with HbA1c >10. The estimated background risk of miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.

Clinical Considerations

Disease-Associated Maternal and/or Embryo/Fetal Risk

Poorly-controlled diabetes in pregnancy increases the maternal risk for diabetic ketoacidosis, pre-eclampsia, miscarriage, preterm delivery, stillbirth, and delivery complications. Poorly controlled diabetes increases the fetal risk for major birth defects, stillbirth, and macrosomia related morbidity.

Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions

Neonates of women with gestational diabetes who are treated with sulfonylureas during pregnancy may be at increased risk for neonatal intensive care admission and may develop respiratory distress, hypoglycemia, birth injury, and be large for gestational age. Prolonged severe hypoglycemia, lasting 4 to 10 days, has been reported in neonates born to mothers receiving a sulfonylurea at the time of delivery and has been reported with the use of agents with a prolonged half-life. Observe newborns for symptoms of hypoglycemia and respiratory distress and manage accordingly.

Dose adjustments during pregnancy and the postpartum period

Due to reports of prolonged severe hypoglycemia in neonates born to mothers receiving a sulfonylurea at the time of delivery, glipizide extended-release tablets should be discontinued at least two weeks before expected delivery (see Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions).

Data

Animal Data

In teratology studies in rats and rabbits, pregnant animals received daily oral doses of glipizide during the period of organogenesis at doses up to 2000 mg/kg/day and 10 mg/kg/day (approximately 833 and 8 times the human dose based on body surface area), respectively. There were no adverse effects on embryo-fetal development at any of the doses tested. In a peri- and postnatal study in pregnant rats, there was a reduced number of pups born alive following administration of glipizide from gestation day 15 throughout lactation through weaning at doses ≥5 mg/kg/day (about 2 times the recommended maximum human dose based on body surface area).

8.2 Lactation

Risk Summary

Breastfed infants of lactating women using glipizide extended-release tablets should be monitored for symptoms of hypoglycemia (see Clinical Considerations). Although glipizide was undetectable in human milk in one small clinical lactation study; this result is not conclusive because of the limitations of the assay used in the study. There are no data on the effects of glipizide on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for glipizide extended-release tablets and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from glipizide extended-release tablets or from the underlying maternal condition.

Clinical Considerations

Monitoring for adverse reactions

Monitor breastfed infants for signs of hypoglycemia (e.g., jitters, cyanosis, apnea, hypothermia, excessive sleepiness, poor feeding, seizures).

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