Limited data with GLUCOPHAGE/GLUCOPHAGE XR in pregnant women are not sufficient to determine a drug-associated risk for major birth defects or miscarriage. Published studies with metformin use during pregnancy have not reported a clear association with metformin and major birth defect or miscarriage risk [see Data ]. There are risks to the mother and fetus associated with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus in pregnancy [see Clinical Considerations ].
No adverse developmental effects were observed when metformin was administered to pregnant Sprague Dawley rats and rabbits during the period of organogenesis at doses up to 2- and 5- times, respectively, a 2550 mg clinical dose, based on body surface area [see Data ].
The estimated background risk of major birth defects is 6–10% in women with pre-gestational diabetes mellitus with an HbA1C >7 and has been reported to be as high as 20–25% in women with a HbA1C >10. The estimated background risk of miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2–4% and 15–20%, respectively.
Disease-associated maternal and/or embryo/fetal risk
Poorly-controlled diabetes mellitus in pregnancy increases the maternal risk for diabetic ketoacidosis, pre-eclampsia, spontaneous abortions, preterm delivery, stillbirth and delivery complications. Poorly controlled diabetes mellitus increases the fetal risk for major birth defects, stillbirth, and macrosomia related morbidity.
Published data from post-marketing studies have not reported a clear association with metformin and major birth defects, miscarriage, or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes when metformin was used during pregnancy. However, these studies cannot definitely establish the absence of any metformin-associated risk because of methodological limitations, including small sample size and inconsistent comparator groups.
Metformin hydrochloride did not adversely affect development outcomes when administered to pregnant rats and rabbits at doses up to 600 mg/kg/day. This represents an exposure of about 2 and 5 times a 2550 mg clinical dose based on body surface area comparisons for rats and rabbits, respectively. Determination of fetal concentrations demonstrated a partial placental barrier to metformin.
Limited published studies report that metformin is present in human milk [see Data ]. However, there is insufficient information to determine the effects of metformin on the breastfed infant and no available information on the effects of metformin on milk production. Therefore, the developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for GLUCOPHAGE/GLUCOPHAGE XR and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from GLUCOPHAGE/GLUCOPHAGE XR or from the underlying maternal condition.
Published clinical lactation studies report that metformin is present in human milk which resulted in infant doses approximately 0.11% to 1% of the maternal weight-adjusted dosage and a milk/plasma ratio ranging between 0.13 and 1. However, the studies were not designed to definitely establish the risk of use of metformin during lactation because of small sample size and limited adverse event data collected in infants.
Discuss the potential for unintended pregnancy with premenopausal women as therapy with GLUCOPHAGE/GLUCOPHAGE XR may result in ovulation in some anovulatory women.
The safety and effectiveness of GLUCOPHAGE for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus have been established in pediatric patients 10 to 16 years old. Safety and effectiveness of GLUCOPHAGE have not been established in pediatric patients less than 10 years old.
Use of GLUCOPHAGE in pediatric patients 10 to 16 years old for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus is supported by evidence from adequate and well-controlled studies of GLUCOPHAGE in adults with additional data from a controlled clinical study in pediatric patients 10 to 16 years old with type 2 diabetes mellitus, which demonstrated a similar response in glycemic control to that seen in adults [see Clinical Studies ( 14.1)]. In this study, adverse reactions were similar to those described in adults. A maximum daily dose of 2000 mg of GLUCOPHAGE is recommended. [See Dosage and Administration ( 2.2)]
Safety and effectiveness of GLUCOPHAGE XR in pediatric patients have not been established.
Controlled clinical studies of GLUCOPHAGE/GLUCOPHAGE XR did not include sufficient numbers of elderly patients to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy and the higher risk of lactic acidosis. Assess renal function more frequently in elderly patients [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1)].
Metformin is substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of metformin accumulation and lactic acidosis increases with the degree of renal impairment. GLUCOPHAGE/GLUCOPHAGE XR is contraindicated in severe renal impairment, patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) below 30 mL/min/1.73 m 2 [see Dosage and Administration (2.3), Contraindications (4), Warnings and Precautions (5.1), and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Use of metformin in patients with hepatic impairment has been associated with some cases of lactic acidosis. GLUCOPHAGE/GLUCOPHAGE XR is not recommended in patients with hepatic impairment. [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Overdose of metformin hydrochloride has occurred, including ingestion of amounts greater than 50 grams. Lactic acidosis has been reported in approximately 32% of metformin overdose cases [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Metformin is dialyzable with a clearance of up to 170 mL/min under good hemodynamic conditions. Therefore, hemodialysis may be useful for removal of accumulated drug from patients in whom metformin overdosage is suspected.
GLUCOPHAGE/GLUCOPHAGE XR contain the antihyperglycemic agent metformin, which is a biguanide, in the form of monohydrochloride. The chemical name of metformin hydrochloride is N,N-dimethylimidodicarbonimidic diamide hydrochloride. The structural formula is as shown below:
Metformin hydrochloride is a white to off-white crystalline compound with a molecular formula of C
5 • HCl and a molecular weight of 165.63. It is freely soluble in water and is practically insoluble in acetone, ether, and chloroform. The pK
a of metformin is 12.4. The pH of a 1% aqueous solution of metformin hydrochloride is 6.68.
GLUCOPHAGE tablets contain 500 mg, 850 mg, or 1000 mg of metformin hydrochloride, which is equivalent to 389.93 mg, 662.88 mg, 779.86 mg metformin base, respectively. Each tablet contains the inactive ingredients povidone and magnesium stearate. In addition, the coating for the 500 mg and 850 mg tablets contains hypromellose and the coating for the 1000 mg tablet contains hypromellose and polyethylene glycol.
GLUCOPHAGE XR contains 500 mg or 750 mg of metformin hydrochloride, which is equivalent to 389.93 mg, 584.90 mg metformin base, respectively.
GLUCOPHAGE XR 500 mg tablets contain the inactive ingredients hypromellose, microcrystalline cellulose, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, and magnesium stearate.
GLUCOPHAGE XR 750 mg tablets contain the inactive ingredients hypromellose, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, magnesium stearate and iron oxide pigment red.
All MedLibrary.org resources are included in as near-original form as possible, meaning that the information from the original provider has been rendered here with only typographical or stylistic modifications and not with any substantive alterations of content, meaning or intent.