Glyburide and Metformin Hydrochloride

GLYBURIDE AND METFORMIN HYDROCHLORIDE- glyburide and metformin hydrochloride tablet, film coated
Lake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC

DESCRIPTION

Glyburide and metformin hydrochloride tablets, USP contain 2 oral antihyperglycemic drugs used in the management of type 2 diabetes, glyburide USP and metformin hydrochloride USP. Glyburide USP is an oral antihyperglycemic drug of the sulfonylurea class. The chemical name for glyburide is 1-[[p -[2-(5-chloro-o -anisamido)ethyl]phenyl]sulfonyl]-3-cyclo-hexylurea. Glyburide USP is a white to off-white crystalline compound. The structural formula is represented below.

Glyburide Chemical Structure
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Metformin hydrochloride USP is an oral antihyperglycemic drug used in the management of type 2 diabetes. Metformin hydrochloride (N ,N- dimethylimidodicarbonimidic diamide monohydrochloride) is not chemically or pharmacologically related to sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, or α-glucosidase inhibitors. It is a white to off-white crystalline compound. Metformin hydrochloride is freely soluble in water and is practically insoluble in acetone, ether, and chloroform. The pKa of metformin is 12.4. The pH of a 1% aqueous solution of metformin hydrochloride is 6.68. The structural formula is as shown:

Metformin Chemical Structure
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Glyburide and metformin hydrochloride tablets, USP are available for oral administration containing 1.25 mg glyburide USP with 250 mg metformin hydrochloride USP, 2.5 mg glyburide USP with 500 mg metformin hydrochloride USP, and 5 mg glyburide USP with 500 mg metformin hydrochloride USP. In addition, each film-coated tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: microcrystalline cellulose, croscarmellose sodium, povidone, magnesium stearate, hypromellose, propylene glycol, polysorbate 80, talc, titanium dioxide and FD&C Yellow#6 aluminum lake. The 1.25 mg/250 mg and 5 mg/500 mg strengths also contain D&C Yellow#10 aluminum lake; The 2.5 mg/500 mg strength also contains FD&C Red#40 aluminum lake. Meets USP Dissolution Test 2

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Mechanism of Action

Glyburide and metformin hydrochloride tablets combine glyburide and metformin hydrochloride, 2 antihyperglycemic agents with complementary mechanisms of action, to improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Glyburide appears to lower blood glucose acutely by stimulating the release of insulin from the pancreas, an effect dependent upon functioning beta cells in the pancreatic islets. The mechanism by which glyburide lowers blood glucose during long-term administration has not been clearly established. With chronic administration in patients with type 2 diabetes, the blood glucose-lowering effect persists despite a gradual decline in the insulin secretory response to the drug. Extrapancreatic effects may be involved in the mechanism of action of oral sulfonylurea hypoglycemic drugs.
Metformin hydrochloride is an antihyperglycemic agent that improves glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes, lowering both basal and postprandial plasma glucose. Metformin hydrochloride decreases hepatic glucose production, decreases intestinal absorption of glucose, and improves insulin sensitivity by increasing peripheral glucose uptake and utilization.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption and Bioavailability

Glyburide and Metformin Hydrochloride

In bioavailability studies of glyburide and metformin hydrochloride 2.5 mg/500 mg and 5 mg/500 mg, the mean area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC) for the glyburide component was 18% and 7%, respectively, greater than that of the MICRONASE® brand of glyburide co-administered with metformin. The glyburide component of glyburide and metformin hydrochloride, therefore, is not bioequivalent to MICRONASE®. The metformin component of glyburide and metformin hydrochloride is bioequivalent to metformin coadministered with glyburide.
Following administration of a single glyburide and metformin hydrochloride 5 mg/500 mg tablet with either a 20% glucose solution or a 20% glucose solution with food, there was no effect of food on the Cmax and a relatively small effect of food on the AUC of the glyburide component. The Tmax for the glyburide component was shortened from 7.5 hours to 2.75 hours with food compared to the same tablet strength administered fasting with a 20% glucose solution. The clinical significance of an earlier Tmax for glyburide after food is not known. The effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of the metformin component was indeterminate.

Glyburide

Single-dose studies with MICRONASE® tablets in normal subjects demonstrate significant absorption of glyburide within 1 hour, peak drug levels at about 4 hours, and low but detectable levels at 24 hours. Mean serum levels of glyburide, as reflected by areas under the serum concentration-time curve, increase in proportion to corresponding increases in dose. Bioequivalence has not been established between glyburide and metformin hydrochloride tablets and single-ingredient glyburide products.

Metformin Hydrochloride
The absolute bioavailability of a 500 mg metformin hydrochloride tablet given under fasting conditions is approximately 50% to 60%. Studies using single oral doses of metformin tablets of 500 mg and 1500 mg, and 850 mg to 2550 mg, indicate that there is a lack of dose proportionality with increasing doses, which is due to decreased absorption rather than an alteration in elimination. Food decreases the extent of and slightly delays the absorption of metformin, as shown by approximately a 40% lower peak concentration and a 25% lower AUC in plasma and a 35-minute prolongation of time to peak plasma concentration following administration of a single 850 mg tablet of metformin with food, compared to the same tablet strength administered fasting. The clinical relevance of these decreases is unknown.

Distribution

Glyburide
Sulfonylurea drugs are extensively bound to serum proteins. Displacement from protein binding sites by other drugs may lead to enhanced hypoglycemic action. In vitro , the protein binding exhibited by glyburide is predominantly non-ionic, whereas that of other sulfonylureas (chlorpropamide, tolbutamide, tolazamide) is predominantly ionic. Acidic drugs, such as phenylbutazone, warfarin, and salicylates, displace the ionic-binding sulfonylureas from serum proteins to a far greater extent than the non-ionic binding glyburide. It has not been shown that this difference in protein binding results in fewer drug-drug interactions with glyburide tablets in clinical use.
Metformin Hydrochloride
The apparent volume of distribution (V/F) of metformin following single oral doses of 850 mg averaged 654±358 L. Metformin is negligibly bound to plasma proteins. Metformin partitions into erythrocytes, most likely as a function of time. At usual clinical doses and dosing schedules of metformin, steady-state plasma concentrations of metformin are reached within 24 to 48 hours and are generally <1 mcg/mL. During controlled clinical trials, maximum metformin plasma levels did not exceed 5 mcg/mL, even at maximum doses.

Metabolism and Elimination

Glyburide
The decrease of glyburide in the serum of normal healthy individuals is biphasic; the terminal half-life is about 10 hours. The major metabolite of glyburide is the 4-trans-hydroxy derivative. A second metabolite, the 3-cis-hydroxy derivative, also occurs. These metabolites probably contribute no significant hypoglycemic action in humans since they are only weakly active (1/400 and 1/40 as active, respectively, as glyburide) in rabbits. Glyburide is excreted as metabolites in the bile and urine, approximately 50% by each route. This dual excretory pathway is qualitatively different from that of other sulfonylureas, which are excreted primarily in the urine.
Metformin Hydrochloride Intravenous single-dose studies in normal subjects demonstrate that metformin is excreted unchanged in the urine and does not undergo hepatic metabolism (no metabolites have been identified in humans) nor biliary excretion. Renal clearance (see Table 1) is approximately 3.5 times greater than creatinine clearance, which indicates that tubular secretion is the major route of metformin elimination. Following oral administration, approximately 90% of the absorbed drug is eliminated via the renal route within the first 24 hours, with a plasma elimination half-life of approximately 6.2 hours. In blood, the elimination half-life is approximately 17.6 hours, suggesting that the erythrocyte mass may be a compartment of distribution.

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