Renal elimination of glycopyrrolate may be severely impaired in patients with renal failure. Dosage adjustments may be necessary in this population [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].
5.7 Autonomic Neuropathy, Hepatic Disease, Ulcerative Colitis, Prostatic Hypertrophy, or Hiatal Hernia
Use GLYRX-PF with caution in the elderly and in all patients with autonomic neuropathy, hepatic disease, ulcerative colitis, prostatic hypertrophy, or hiatal hernia, because anticholinergic drugs may aggravate these conditions. Consider dose reduction and closely monitor the elderly and patients with autonomic neuropathy, hepatic disease, ulcerative colitis, prostatic hypertrophy, or hiatal hernia.
The use of anticholinergic drugs, including GLYRX-PF, in the treatment of peptic ulcer may produce a delay in gastric emptying/gastric stasis. Monitor patients for symptoms such as vomiting, dyspepsia, early satiety, abdominal distention, and increased abdominal pain. Discontinue GLYRX-PF treatment if these symptoms develop or worsen on treatment.
Patients may experience sensitivity of the eyes to light. Advise patients to protect their eyes from light after receiving GLYRX-PF.
The following adverse reactions were identified in clinical studies or postmarketing reports. Because some of these reactions were reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Adverse reactions to anticholinergics include xerostomia (dry mouth); urinary hesitancy and retention; blurred vision and photophobia due to mydriasis (dilation of the pupil); cycloplegia; increased ocular tension; tachycardia; palpitation; decreased sweating; loss of taste; headache; nervousness; drowsiness; weakness; dizziness; insomnia; nausea; vomiting; impotence; suppression of lactation; constipation; bloated feeling; severe allergic reactions including anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions; hypersensitivity; urticaria, pruritus, dry skin, and other dermal manifestations; some degree of mental confusion and/or excitement, especially in elderly persons.
The following adverse reactions have been reported from post-marketing experience with glycopyrrolate: malignant hyperthermia; cardiac arrhythmias (including bradycardia, ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation); cardiac arrest; hypertension; hypotension; seizures; and respiratory arrest. Post-marketing reports have included cases of heart block and QTc interval prolongation associated with the combined use of glycopyrrolate and an anticholinesterase. Injection site reactions including pruritus, edema, erythema, and pain have also been reported.
The concurrent use of GLYRX-PF with other anticholinergics or medications with anticholinergic activity, such as phenothiazines, antiparkinson drugs, or tricyclic antidepressants, may intensify the antimuscarinic effects and result in an increase in anticholinergic side effects.
Concomitant administration of GLYRX-PF and potassium chloride in a wax matrix may increase the severity of potassium chloride-induced gastrointestinal lesions as a result of a slower gastrointestinal transit time.
- Risk Summary
Limited data available with glycopyrrolate use during pregnancy have not identified a drug-associated risk of birth defects and miscarriage, however, most of the reported exposures occurred after the first trimester. Most of the available data are based on studies with exposures that occurred at the time of Cesarean-section delivery, and these studies have not identified an adverse effect on maternal outcomes or infant Apgar scores (see Data).
In animal reproduction studies in pregnant rats and rabbits administered glycopyrrolate orally (rats) and intramuscularly (rabbits) during the period of organogenesis, no teratogenic effects were seen at 640-times and 10-times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 1 mg (on a mg/m2 basis), respectively (see Data).
The estimated background risk for major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in the clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15−20%, respectively.
Published, randomized, controlled trials over several decades, which compared the use of glycopyrrolate to another antimuscarinic agent in pregnant women during Cesarean section, have not identified adverse maternal or infant outcomes. In normal doses (0.004 mg/kg), glycopyrrolate does not appear to affect fetal heart rate or fetal heart rate variability to a significant degree. Concentrations of glycopyrrolate in umbilical venous and arterial blood and in the amniotic fluid are low after intramuscular administration to parturients. Therefore, glycopyrrolate does not appear to penetrate through the placental barrier in significant amounts.
There are no studies on the safety of glycopyrrolate exposure during the period of organogenesis, and therefore, it is not possible to draw any conclusions on the risk of birth defects following exposure to glycopyrrolate during pregnancy. In addition, there are no data on the risk of miscarriage following fetal exposure to glycopyrrolate.
Reproduction studies with glycopyrrolate were performed in rats at a dietary dose of approximately 65 mg/kg/day (exposure was approximately 640 times the maximum recommended daily human dose of 1 mg on a mg/m2 basis) and rabbits at intramuscular doses of up to 0.5 mg/kg/day (exposure was approximately 10 times the maximum recommended daily human dose on a mg/m2 basis). These studies produced no teratogenic effects to the fetus.
A preclinical study on reproductive performance of rats given glycopyrrolate resulted in a decreased rate of conception and survival at weaning.
There are no data on the presence of glycopyrrolate in either human milk or animal milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. As with other anticholinergics, glycopyrrolate may cause suppression of lactation [see Adverse Reactions (6)]. The developmental and health benefits of breast feeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for Glycopyrrolate Injection and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from Glycopyrrolate Injection or from the underlying maternal condition.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established for the management of peptic ulcer.
Dysrhythmias associated with the use of glycopyrrolate intravenously as a premedicant or during anesthesia have been observed in pediatric patients.
Infants, patients with Down’s syndrome, and pediatric patients with spastic paralysis or brain damage may experience an increased response to anticholinergics, thus increasing the potential for side effects.
A paradoxical reaction characterized by hyperexcitability may occur in pediatric patients receiving large doses of anticholinergics including GLYRX-PF. Infants and young children are especially susceptible to the toxic effects of anticholinergics.
Clinical Studies of GLYRX-PF did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other therapy.
Renal elimination of glycopyrrolate may be severely impaired in patients with renal failure. Dosage adjustments may be necessary [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
To combat peripheral anticholinergic effects, a quaternary ammonium anticholinesterase such as neostigmine methylsulfate (which does not cross the blood-brain barrier) may be given intravenously in increments of 0.25 mg in adults. This dosage may be repeated every five to ten minutes until anticholinergic overactivity is reversed or up to a maximum of 2.5 mg. Proportionately smaller doses should be used in pediatric patients. Indication for repetitive doses of neostigmine should be based on close monitoring of the decrease in heart rate and the return of bowel sounds.
If CNS symptoms (e.g., excitement, restlessness, convulsions, psychotic behavior) occur, physostigmine (which does cross the blood–brain barrier) may be used. Physostigmine 0.5 to 2 mg should be slowly administered intravenously and repeated as necessary up to a total of 5 mg in adults. Proportionately smaller doses should be used in pediatric patients.
To combat hypotension, administer IV fluids and/or pressor agents along with supportive care. Fever should be treated symptomatically.
Following overdosage, a curare-like action may occur, i.e., neuromuscular blockade leading to muscular weakness and possible paralysis. In the event of a curare-like effect on respiratory muscles, artificial respiration should be instituted and maintained until effective respiratory action returns.
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