Granisetron Hydrochloride (Page 3 of 4)

Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects

Pregnancy Category B.

Reproduction studies have been performed in pregnant rats at oral doses up to 125 mg/kg/day (750 mg/m2 /day, 507 times the recommended human dose based on body surface area) and pregnant rabbits at oral doses up to 32 mg/kg/day (378 mg/m2 /day, 255 times the recommended human dose based on body surface area) and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to granisetron. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether granisetron is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when granisetron hydrochloride is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

Geriatric Use

During clinical trials, 325 patients 65 years of age or older received granisetron hydrochloride tablets; 298 were 65 to 74 years of age, and 27 were 75 years of age or older. Efficacy and safety were maintained with increasing age.

Adverse Reactions to Granisetron Hydrochloride

QT prolongation has been reported with granisetron hydrochloride (see PRECAUTIONS and Drug Interactions).

Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting

Over 3700 patients have received granisetron hydrochloride tablets in clinical trials with emetogenic cancer therapies consisting primarily of cyclophosphamide or cisplatin regimens. In patients receiving granisetron hydrochloride tablets 1 mg twice a day for 1, 7 or 14 days, or 2 mg daily for 1 day, adverse experiences reported in more than 5% of the patients with comparator and placebo incidences are listed inTable 4.

Table 4 Principal Adverse Events in Clinical Trials
Percent of Patients With Event
Granisetron Hydrochloride1 Tablets 1 mg twice a day (n=978) Granisetron Hydrochloride1 Tablets 2 mg once a day (n=1450) Comparator2 (n=599) Placebo (n=185)
Headache 21% 20% 13% 12%
Constipation 18% 14% 16% 8%
Asthenia 14% 18% 10% 4%
Diarrhea 8% 9% 10% 4%
Abdominal pain 6% 4% 6% 3%
Dyspepsia 4% 6% 5% 4%

1 Adverse events were recorded for 7 days when granisetron hydrochloride tablets were given on a single day and for up to 28 days when granisetron hydrochloride tablets were administered for 7 or 14 days.

2 Metoclopramide/dexamethasone; phenothiazines/dexamethasone; dexamethasone alone; prochlorperazine.

Other adverse events reported in clinical trials were:

Gastrointestinal: In single-day dosing studies in which adverse events were collected for 7 days, nausea (20%) and vomiting (12%) were recorded as adverse events after the 24 hour efficacy assessment period.

Hepatic: In comparative trials, elevation of AST and ALT (>2 times the upper limit of normal) following the administration of granisetron hydrochloride tablets occurred in 5% and 6% of patients, respectively. These frequencies were not significantly different from those seen with comparators (AST: 2%; ALT: 9%).

Cardiovascular: Hypertension (1%); hypotension, angina pectoris, atrial fibrillation, and syncope have been observed rarely.

Central Nervous System: Dizziness (5%), insomnia (5%), anxiety (2%), somnolence (1%). One case compatible with, but not diagnostic of, extrapyramidal symptoms has been reported in a patient treated with granisetron hydrochloride tablets.

Hypersensitivity: Rare cases of hypersensitivity reactions, sometimes severe (e.g., anaphylaxis, shortness of breath, hypotension, urticaria) have been reported.

Other: Fever (5%). Events often associated with chemotherapy also have been reported: leukopenia (9%), decreased appetite (6%), anemia (4%), alopecia (3%), thrombocytopenia (2%).

Over 5000 patients have received injectable granisetron hydrochloride in clinical trials.

Table 5 gives the comparative frequencies of the five commonly reported adverse events (≥3%) in patients receiving granisetron hydrochloride injection, 40 mcg/kg, in single-day chemotherapy trials. These patients received chemotherapy, primarily cisplatin, and intravenous fluids during the 24 hour period following granisetron hydrochloride injection administration.

Table 5 Principal Adverse Events in Clinical Trials — Single-Day Chemotherapy
Percent of Patients with Event
Granisetron Hydrochloride Injection1 40 mcg/kg (n=1268) Comparator2 (n=422)
Headache 14% 6%
Asthenia 5% 6%
Somnolence 4% 15%
Diarrhea 4% 6%
Constipation 3% 3%

1 Adverse events were generally recorded over 7 days post-granisetron hydrochloride injection administration.

2 Metoclopramide/dexamethasone and phenothiazines/dexamethasone.

In the absence of a placebo group, there is uncertainty as to how many of these events should be attributed to granisetron hydrochloride, except for headache, which was clearly more frequent than in comparison groups.

Radiation-Induced Nausea and Vomiting

In controlled clinical trials, the adverse events reported by patients receiving granisetron hydrochloride tablets and concurrent radiation were similar to those reported by patients receiving granisetron hydrochloride tablets prior to chemotherapy. The most frequently reported adverse events were diarrhea, asthenia, and constipation. Headache, however, was less prevalent in this patient population.

Postmarketing Experience

QT prolongation has been reported with granisetron hydrochloride (see PRECAUTIONS and Drug Interactions).

OVERDOSAGE

There is no specific treatment for granisetron hydrochloride overdosage. In case of overdosage, symptomatic treatment should be given. Overdosage of up to 38.5 mg of granisetron hydrochloride injection has been reported without symptoms or only the occurrence of a slight headache.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Emetogenic Chemotherapy

The recommended adult dosage of oral granisetron hydrochloride is 2 mg once daily or 1 mg twice daily. In the 2 mg once-daily regimen, two 1 mg tablets are given up to 1 hour before chemotherapy. In the 1 mg twice-daily regimen, the first 1 mg tablet is given up to 1 hour before chemotherapy, and the second tablet, 12 hours after the first. Either regimen is administered only on the day(s) chemotherapy is given. Continued treatment, while not on chemotherapy, has not been found to be useful.

Use in the Elderly, Renal Failure Patients or Hepatically Impaired Patients

No dosage adjustment is recommended (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Pharmacokinetics).

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

Radiation (Either Total Body Irradiation or Fractionated Abdominal Radiation)

The recommended adult dosage of oral granisetron hydrochloride is 2 mg once daily. Two 1 mg tablets are taken within 1 hour of radiation.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

Use in the Elderly

No dosage adjustment is recommended.

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