Guanfacine (Page 3 of 7)
6.2 Postmarketing Experience
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of guanfacine. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Less frequent, possibly guanfacine-related events observed in the post-marketing study and/or reported spontaneously, not included in section 6.1, include:
General: edema, malaise, tremor
Cardiovascular: palpitations, tachycardia, rebound hypertension, hypertensive encephalopathy
Central Nervous System: paresthesias, vertigo
Eye Disorders: blurred vision
Musculo-Skeletal System: arthralgia, leg cramps, leg pain, myalgia
Psychiatric: confusion, hallucinations
Reproductive System, Male: erectile dysfunction
Respiratory System: dyspnea
Skin and Appendages: alopecia, dermatitis, exfoliative dermatitis, pruritus, rash
Special Senses: alterations in taste
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS
Table 14 contains clinically important drug interactions with guanfacine [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Table 14: Clinically Important Drug Interactions: Effect of other Drugs on Guanfacine
Concomitant Drug Name or Drug Class
Clinical Rationale and Magnitude of Drug Interaction
Strong and moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors, e.g., ketoconazole, fluconazole
Guanfacine is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4 and its plasma concentrations can be significantly affected resulting in an increase in exposure
Consider dose reduction [see Dosage and administration (2.7)]
Strong and moderate CYP3A4 inducers, e.g., rifampin, efavirenz
Guanfacine is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4 and its plasma concentrations can be significantly affected resulting in a decrease in exposure
Consider dose increase [see Dosage and administration (2.7)]
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Pregnancy Exposure Registry
There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to ADHD medications, including guanfacine extended-release tablets, during pregnancy. Healthcare providers are encouraged to register patients by calling the National Pregnancy Registry for ADHD Medications at 1-866-961-2388.
Available data with guanfacine over decades of use in pregnant women have not identified a drug-associated risk of major birth defects, miscarriage or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. However, use of guanfacine in pregnant women over this time has been infrequent. In animal reproduction studies, rabbits and rats exposed to 3 and 4 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD), respectively, showed no adverse outcomes. However, higher doses were associated with reduced fetal survival and maternal toxicity (see Data).
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively.
Reproduction studies conducted in rats have shown that guanfacine crosses the placenta. However, administration of guanfacine to rabbits and rats during organogenesis at 3 (rabbit) and 4 (rat) times the MRHD of 0.12 mg/kg/day on a mg/m2 basis resulted in no evidence of harm to the fetus. Higher doses (13.5 times the MRHD in both rabbits and rats) were associated with reduced fetal survival and maternal toxicity.
There are no data on the presence of guanfacine in human milk or the effects on the breastfed infant. The effects on milk production are also unknown. Guanfacine is present in the milk of lactating rats (see Data). If a drug is present in animal milk, it is likely that the drug will be present in human milk. If an infant is exposed to guanfacine through breastmilk, monitor for symptoms of hypotension and bradycardia such as sedation, lethargy and poor feeding (see Clinical Considerations). The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for guanfacine and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from guanfacine or from the underlying maternal condition.
Monitor breastfeeding infants exposed to guanfacine through breastmilk for sedation, lethargy, and poor feeding.
Guanfacine was excreted in breast milk of lactating rats at a concentration comparable to that observed in blood, but slightly less than the concentration in plasma when administered following a single oral dose of 5 mg/kg. The concentration of drug in animal milk does not necessarily predict the concentration of drug in human milk.
8.4 Pediatric Use
Safety and efficacy of guanfacine in pediatric patients less than 6 years of age have not been established. The efficacy of guanfacine was studied for the treatment of ADHD in five controlled monotherapy clinical trials (up to 15 weeks in duration), one randomized withdrawal study and one controlled adjunctive trial with psychostimulants (8 weeks in duration) in children and adolescents ages 6 to 17 who met DSM-IV® criteria for ADHD [see Adverse Reactions (6) and Clinical Studies (14)].
In studies in juvenile rats, guanfacine alone produced a slight delay in sexual maturation in males and females at 2 to 3 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD). Guanfacine in combination with methylphenidate produced a slight delay in sexual maturation and decreased growth as measured by a decrease in bone length in males at a dose of guanfacine comparable to the MRHD and a dose of methylphenidate approximately 4 times the MRHD.
In a study where juvenile rats were treated with guanfacine alone from 7 to 59 days of age, development was delayed as indicated by a slight delay in sexual maturation and decreased body weight gain in males at 2 mg/kg/day and in females at 3 mg/kg/day. The No Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for delayed sexual maturation was 1 mg/kg/day, which is equivalent to the MRHD of 4 mg/day, on a mg/m2 basis. The effects on fertility were not evaluated in this study.
In a study where juvenile rats were treated with guanfacine in combination with methylphenidate from 7 to 59 days of age, a decrease in ulna bone length and a slight delay in sexual maturation were observed in males given 1 mg/kg/day of guanfacine in combination with 50 mg/kg/day of methylphenidate. The NOAELs for these findings were 0.3 mg/kg of guanfacine in combination with 16 mg/kg/day of methylphenidate, which are equivalent to 0.3 and 1.4 times the MRHD of 4 mg/day and 54 mg/day for guanfacine and methylphenidate, respectively, on a mg/m2 basis. These findings were not observed with guanfacine alone at 1 mg/kg/day or methylphenidate alone at 50 mg/kg/day.
8.5 Geriatric Use
The safety and efficacy of guanfacine in geriatric patients have not been established.
8.6 Renal Impairment
It may be necessary to reduce the dosage in patients with significant impairment of renal function [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
8.7 Hepatic Impairment
It may be necessary to reduce the dosage in patients with significant impairment of hepatic function [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
9 DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE
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