HALOPERIDOL LACTATE- haloperidol lactate injection, solution
General Injectables and Vaccines, Inc.
Haloperidol is the first of the butyrophenone series of major antipsychotics. The chemical designation is 4-[4-(p-chlorophenyl)-4-hydroxypiperidino]-4′-fluorobutyrophenone and it has the following structural formula:
Haloperidol Injection, USP is available as a sterile parenteral form for intramuscular injection. Each mL contains 5 mg haloperidol (as the lactate) with 1.8 mg methylparaben and 0.2 propylparaben, lactic acid to adjust the pH to 3.0 to 3.8 and Water for Injection, q.s.
The precise mechanism of action has not been clearly established.
Haloperidol Injection, USP is indicated for use in the treatment of schizophrenia.
Haloperidol Injection is indicated for the control of tics and vocal utterances of Tourette’s Disorder.
Haloperidol injection is contraindicated in patients with:
• Severe toxic central nervous system depression or comatose states from any cause.
• Hypersensitivity to this drug – hypersensitivity reactions have included anaphylactic reaction and angioedema (see WARNINGS, HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS and ADVERSE REACTIONS).
• Parkinson’s disease (see WARNINGS, NEUROLOGICAL ADVERSE REACTIONS IN PATIENTS WITH PARKINSON’S DISEASE OR DEMENTIA WITH LEWY BODIES).
• Dementia with Lewy bodies (see WARNINGS, NEUROLOGICAL ADVERSE REACTIONS IN PATIENTS WITH PARKINSON’S DISEASE OR DEMENTIA WITH LEWY BODIES).
Increased Mortality in Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Psychosis
Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death. Haloperidol injection is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis (see BOXED WARNING).
Cases of sudden death, QT-prolongation, and Torsades de Pointes have been reported in patients receiving haloperidol. Higher than recommended doses of any formulation and intravenous administration of haloperidol appear to be associated with a higher risk of QT-prolongation and Torsades de Pointes. Although cases have been reported even in the absence of predisposing factors, particular caution is advised in treating patients with other QT-prolonging conditions (including electrolyte imbalance [particularly hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia], drugs known to prolong QT, underlying cardiac abnormalities, hypothyroidism, and familial long QT-syndrome). HALOPERIDOL INJECTION IS NOT APPROVED FOR INTRAVENOUS ADMINISTRATION. If haloperidol is administered intravenously, the ECG should be monitored for QT-prolongation and arrhythmias.
A syndrome consisting of potentially irreversible, involuntary, dyskinetic movements may develop in patients treated with antipsychotic drugs (see ADVERSE REACTIONS). Although the prevalence of the syndrome appears to be highest among the elderly, especially elderly women, it is impossible to rely upon prevalence estimates to predict, at the inception of antipsychotic treatment, which patients are likely to develop the syndrome. Whether antipsychotic drug products differ in their potential to cause tardive dyskinesia is unknown.
Both the risk of developing tardive dyskinesia and the likelihood that it will become irreversible are believed to increase as the duration of treatment and the total cumulative dose of antipsychotic drugs administered to the patient increase. However, the syndrome can develop, although much less commonly, after relatively brief treatment periods at low doses.
There is no known treatment for established cases of tardive dyskinesia, although the syndrome may remit, partially or completely, if antipsychotic treatment is withdrawn. Antipsychotic treatment, itself, however, may suppress (or partially suppress) the signs and symptoms of the syndrome and thereby may possibly mask the underlying process. The effect that symptomatic suppression has upon the long-term course of the syndrome is unknown.
Given these considerations, antipsychotic drugs should be prescribed in a manner that is most likely to minimize the occurrence of tardive dyskinesia. Chronic antipsychotic treatment should generally be reserved for patients who suffer from a chronic illness that, 1) is known to respond to antipsychotic drugs, and, 2) for whom alternative, equally effective, but potentially less harmful treatments are not available or appropriate. In patients who do require chronic treatment, the smallest dose and the shortest duration of treatment producing a satisfactory clinical response should be sought. The need for continued treatment should be reassessed periodically.
If signs and symptoms of tardive dyskinesia appear in a patient on antipsychotics, drug discontinuation should be considered. However, some patients may require treatment despite the presence of the syndrome.
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS)
A potentially fatal symptom complex sometimes referred to as Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) has been reported in association with antipsychotic drugs (see ADVERSE REACTIONS). Clinical manifestations of NMS are hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status (including catatonic signs) and evidence of autonomic instability (irregular pulse or blood pressure, tachycardia, diaphoresis, and cardiac dysrhythmias). Additional signs may include elevated creatine phosphokinase, myoglobinuria (rhabdomyolysis) and acute renal failure.
The diagnostic evaluation of patients with this syndrome is complicated. In arriving at a diagnosis, it is important to identify cases where the clinical presentation includes both serious medical illness (e.g., pneumonia, systemic infection, etc.) and untreated or inadequately treated extrapyramidal signs and symptoms. Other important considerations in the differential diagnosis include central anticholinergic toxicity, heat stroke, drug fever and primary central nervous system (CNS) pathology.
The management of NMS should include 1) immediate discontinuation of antipsychotic drugs and other drugs not essential to concurrent therapy, 2) intensive symptomatic treatment and medical monitoring, and 3) treatment of any concomitant serious medical problems for which specific treatments are available. There is no general agreement about specific pharmacological treatment regimens for uncomplicated NMS.
If a patient requires antipsychotic drug treatment after recovery from NMS, the potential reintroduction of drug therapy should be carefully considered. The patient should be carefully monitored, since recurrences of NMS have been reported.
Hyperpyrexia and heat stroke, not associated with the above symptom complex, have also been reported with haloperidol.
Neurological Adverse Reactions in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease or Dementia with Lewy Bodies
Patients with Parkinson’s Disease or Dementia with Lewy Bodies are reported to have an increased sensitivity to antipsychotic medication. Manifestations of this increased sensitivity with haloperidol treatment include severe extrapyramidal symptoms, confusion, sedation, and falls. In addition, haloperidol may impair the antiparkinson effects of levodopa and other dopamine agonists. Haloperidol is contraindicated in patients with Parkinson’s Disease or Dementia with Lewy Bodies (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).
There have been postmarketing reports of hypersensitivity reactions with haloperidol. These include anaphylactic reaction, angioedema, dermatitis exfoliative, hypersensitivity vasculitis, rash, urticaria, face edema, laryngeal edema, bronchospasm, and laryngospasm (see ADVERSE REACTIONS). Haloperidol is contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to this drug (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).
Motor instability, somnolence, and orthostatic hypotension have been reported with the use of antipsychotics, including haloperidol, which may lead to falls and, consequently, fractures or other fall-related injuries. For patients, particularly the elderly, with diseases, conditions, or medications that could exacerbate these effects, assess the risk of falls when initiating antipsychotic treatment and recurrently for patients receiving repeated doses.
Usage in Pregnancy
Rodents given 2 to 20 times the usual maximum human dose of haloperidol by oral or parenteral routes showed an increase in incidence of resorption, reduced fertility, delayed delivery and pup mortality. No teratogenic effect has been reported in rats, rabbits or dogs at dosages within this range, but cleft palate has been observed in mice given 15 times the usual maximum human dose. Cleft palate in mice appears to be a nonspecific response to stress or nutritional imbalance as well as to a variety of drugs, and there is no evidence to relate this phenomenon to predictable human risk for most of these agents.
There are no well controlled studies with haloperidol in pregnant women. There are reports, however, of cases of limb malformations observed following maternal use of haloperidol along with other drugs which have suspected teratogenic potential during the first trimester of pregnancy. Causal relationships were not established in these cases. Since such experience does not exclude the possibility of fetal damage due to haloperidol, this drug should be used during pregnancy or in women likely to become pregnant only if the benefit clearly justifies a potential risk to the fetus. Infants should not be nursed during drug treatment.
Neonates exposed to antipsychotic drugs (including haloperidol) during the third trimester of pregnancy are at risk for extrapyramidal and/or withdrawal symptoms following delivery. There have been reports of agitation, hypertonia, hypotonia, tremor, somnolence, respiratory distress, and feeding disorder in these neonates. These complications have varied in severity; while in some cases symptoms have been self-limited, in other cases neonates have required intensive care unit support and prolonged hospitalization.
Haloperidol should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Combined Use of Haloperidol and Lithium
An encephalopathic syndrome (characterized by weakness, lethargy, fever, tremulousness and confusion, extrapyramidal symptoms, leukocytosis, elevated serum enzymes, BUN, and fasting blood sugar) followed by irreversible brain damage has occurred in a few patients treated with lithium plus haloperidol. A causal relationship between these events and the concomitant administration of lithium and haloperidol has not been established; however, patients receiving such combined therapy should be monitored closely for early evidence of neurological toxicity and treatment discontinued promptly if such signs appear.
A number of cases of bronchopneumonia, some fatal, have followed the use of antipsychotic drugs, including haloperidol. It has been postulated that lethargy and decreased sensation of thirst due to central inhibition may lead to dehydration, hemoconcentration and reduced pulmonary ventilation. Therefore, if the above signs and symptoms appear, especially in the elderly, the physician should institute remedial therapy promptly.
Although not reported with haloperidol, decreased serum cholesterol and/or cutaneous and ocular changes have been reported in patients receiving chemically-related drugs.
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