HEPARIN SODIUM- heparin sodium injection
General Injectables and Vaccines, Inc.
These highlights do not include all the information needed to use HEPARIN SODIUM INJECTION safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for HEPARIN SODIUM INJECTION.
HEPARIN SODIUM injection, for intravenous or subcutaneous use
Initial U.S. Approval: 1939
Heparin Sodium Injection is indicated for:
• Prophylaxis and treatment of venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism;
• Prevention of postoperative deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in patients undergoing major abdominothoracic surgery or who, for other reasons, are at risk of developing thromboembolic disease;
• Atrial fibrillation with embolization;
• Treatment of acute and chronic consumptive coagulopathies (disseminated intravascular coagulation);
• Prevention of clotting in arterial and cardiac surgery;
• Prophylaxis and treatment of peripheral arterial embolism.• Anticoagulant use in blood transfusions, extracorporeal circulation, and dialysis procedures.
2.1 Preparation for Administration
Confirm the choice of the correct heparin sodium injection vial to ensure that the 1 mL vial is not confused with a “catheter lock flush” vial or other 1 mL vial of incorrect strength [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.1)].Confirm the selection of the correct formulation and strength prior to administration of the drug.
To lessen this risk, the 1 mL vial includes a red cautionary label that extends above the main label. Read the cautionary statement and confirm that you have selected the correct medication and strength. Then locate the “Tear Here” point on the label, and remove this red cautionary label prior to removing the flip-off cap.
When heparin is added to an infusion solution for continuous intravenous administration, invert the container repeatedly to ensure adequate mixing and prevent pooling of the heparin in the solution.
Inspect parenteral drug products visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. Use only if solution is clear and the seal is intact. Do not use if solution is discolored or contains a precipitate.
Administer heparin sodium injection by intermittent intravenous injection, intravenous infusion, or deep subcutaneous (intrafat, i.e., above the iliac crest or abdominal fat layer) injection. Do not administer heparin sodium injection by intramuscular injection because of the risk of hematoma at the injection site [see ADVERSE REACTIONS (6)].
2.2 Laboratory Monitoring for Efficacy and Safety
Adjust the dosage of heparin sodium injection according to the patient’s coagulation test results. Dosage is considered adequate when the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) is 1.5 to 2 times normal or when the whole blood clotting time is elevated approximately 2.5 to 3 times the control value. When initiating treatment with heparin sodium injection by continuous intravenous infusion, determine the coagulation status (aPTT, INR, platelet count) at baseline and continue to follow aPTT approximately every 4 hours and then at appropriate intervals thereafter. When the drug is administered intermittently by intravenous injection, perform coagulation tests before each injection during the initiation of treatment and at appropriate intervals thereafter. After deep subcutaneous (intrafat) injections, tests for adequacy of dosage are best performed on samples drawn 4 to 6 hours after the injection.
Periodic platelet counts and hematocrits are recommended during the entire course of heparin therapy, regardless of the route of administration.
2.3 Therapeutic Anticoagulant Effect with Full-Dose Heparin
The dosing recommendations in Table 1 are based on clinical experience. Although dosages must be adjusted for the individual patient according to the results of suitable laboratory tests, the following dosage schedules may be used as guidelines:
Table 1: Recommended Adult Full-Dose Heparin Regimens for Therapeutic Anticoagulant Effect
2.4 Pediatric UseDo not use this product in neonates and infants. Use preservative-free heparin sodium injection in neonates and infants [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.4)].
There are no adequate and well controlled studies on heparin use in pediatric patients. Pediatric dosing recommendations are based on clinical experience. In general, the following dosage schedule may be used as a guideline in pediatric patients:
2.5 Cardiovascular Surgery
Patients undergoing total body perfusion for open-heart surgery should receive an initial dose of not less than 150 units of heparin sodium per kilogram of body weight. Frequently, a dose of 300 units per kilogram is used for procedures estimated to last less than 60 minutes, or 400 units per kilogram for those estimated to last longer than 60 minutes.
2.6 Low-Dose Prophylaxis of Postoperative Thromboembolism
The most widely used dosage has been 5,000 units 2 hours before surgery and 5,000 units every 8 to 12 hours thereafter for 7 days or until the patient is fully ambulatory, whichever is longer. Administer the heparin by deep subcutaneous (intrafat, i.e., above the iliac crest or abdominal fat layer, arm, or thigh) injection with a fine (25 to 26-gauge) needle to minimize tissue trauma.
2.7 Blood Transfusion
Add 450 to 600 USP units of heparin sodium per 100 mL of whole blood to prevent coagulation. Usually, 7,500 USP units of heparin sodium are added to 100 mL of 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP (or 75,000 USP units per 1000 mL of 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP) and mixed; from this sterile solution, 6 to 8 mL are added per 100 mL of whole blood.
2.8 Converting to Warfarin
To ensure continuous anticoagulation when converting from heparin sodium injection to warfarin, continue full heparin therapy for several days until the INR (prothrombin time) has reached a stable therapeutic range. Heparin therapy may then be discontinued without tapering [see DRUG INTERACTIONS (7.1)].
2.9 Converting to Oral Anticoagulants other than Warfarin
For patients currently receiving intravenous heparin, stop intravenous infusion of heparin sodium immediately after administering the first dose of oral anticoagulant; or for intermittent intravenous administration of heparin sodium, start oral anticoagulant 0 to 2 hours before the time that the next dose of heparin was to have been administered.
2.10 Extracorporeal Dialysis
Follow equipment manufacturers’ operating directions carefully. A dose of 25 to 30 units/kg followed by an infusion rate of 1,500 to 2,000 units/hour is suggested based on pharmacodynamic data if specific manufacturers’ recommendations are not available.
Heparin Sodium Injection, USP is available as:
•Injection: 1,000 USP units per mL preserved with benzyl alcohol clear solution in 1 mL single-dose, 10 mL and 30 mL multi-dose vials
•Injection: 5,000 USP units per mL preserved with benzyl alcohol clear solution in 1 mL single-dose and 10 mL multi-dose vials
•Injection: 10,000 USP units per mL preserved with benzyl alcohol clear solution in 1 mL single-dose and 4 mL multi-dose vials
The use of heparin sodium injection is contraindicated in patients with the following conditions:
• History of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.3)];
• Known hypersensitivity to heparin or pork products (e.g., anaphylactoid reactions) [see ADVERSE REACTIONS (6.1)]
• In whom suitable blood coagulation tests, e.g., the whole blood clotting time, partial thromboplastin time, etc., cannot be performed at appropriate intervals (this contraindication refers to full-dose heparin; there is usually no need to monitor coagulation parameters in patients receiving low-dose heparin);
• An uncontrolled active bleeding state [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.4)], except when this is due to disseminated intravascular coagulation.
5.1 Fatal Medication Errors
Do not use heparin sodium injection as a “catheter lock flush” product. Heparin sodium injection is supplied in vials containing various strengths of heparin, including vials that contain a highly concentrated solution of 10,000 units in 1 mL. Fatal hemorrhages have occurred in pediatric patients due to medication errors in which 1 mL heparin sodium injection vials were confused with 1 mL “catheter lock flush” vials. Carefully examine all heparin sodium injection vials to confirm the correct vial choice prior to administration of the drug.
Avoid using heparin in the presence of major bleeding, except when the benefits of heparin therapy outweigh the potential risks.
Hemorrhage can occur at virtually any site in patients receiving heparin. Fatal hemorrhages have occurred. Adrenal hemorrhage (with resultant acute adrenal insufficiency), ovarian hemorrhage, and retroperitoneal hemorrhage have occurred during anticoagulant therapy with heparin [see ADVERSE REACTIONS (6.1)]. A higher incidence of bleeding has been reported in patients, particularly women, over 60 years of age [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY (12.3)]. An unexplained fall in hematocrit, fall in blood pressure or any other unexplained symptom should lead to serious consideration of a hemorrhagic event.
Use heparin sodium with caution in disease states in which there is increased risk of hemorrhage, including:
•Cardiovascular — Subacute bacterial endocarditis, severe hypertension.
•Surgical — During and immediately following (a) spinal tap or spinal anesthesia or (b) major surgery, especially involving the brain, spinal cord, or eye.
•Hematologic — Conditions associated with increased bleeding tendencies, such as hemophilia, thrombocytopenia and some vascular purpuras.
• Patients with hereditary antithrombin III deficiency receiving concurrent antithrombin III therapy — The anticoagulant effect of heparin is enhanced by concurrent treatment with antithrombin III (human) in patients with hereditary antithrombin III deficiency. To reduce the risk of bleeding, reduce the heparin dose during concomitant treatment with antithrombin III (human).
• Gastrointestinal — Ulcerative lesions and continuous tube drainage of the stomach or small intestine.
• Other — Menstruation, liver disease with impaired hemostasis.
5.3 Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia and Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia and Thrombosis
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a serious antibody-mediated reaction. HIT occurs in patients treated with heparin and is due to the development of antibodies to a platelet Factor 4-heparin complex that induce in vivo platelet aggregation. HIT may progress to the development of venous and arterial thromboses, a condition referred to as heparin-induced thrombocytopenia with thrombosis (HITT). Thrombotic events may also be the initial presentation for HITT. These serious thromboembolic events include deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, cerebral vein thrombosis, limb ischemia, stroke, myocardial infarction, mesenteric thrombosis, renal arterial thrombosis, skin necrosis, gangrene of the extremities that may lead to amputation, and possibly death. If the platelet count falls below 100,000/mm3 or if recurrent thrombosis develops, promptly discontinue heparin, evaluate for HIT and HITT, and, if necessary, administer an alternative anticoagulant.
HIT or HITT can occur up to several weeks after the discontinuation of heparin therapy. Patients presenting with thrombocytopenia or thrombosis after discontinuation of heparin sodium should be evaluated for HIT or HITT.
5.4 Risk of Serious Adverse Reactions in Infants Due to Benzyl Alcohol Preservative
Serious and fatal adverse reactions including “gasping syndrome” can occur in neonates and infants treated with benzyl alcohol-preserved drugs, including heparin sodium injection multiple-dose vials. The “gasping syndrome” is characterized by central nervous system depression, metabolic acidosis, and gasping respirations.
When prescribing heparin sodium injection multiple-dose vials in infants consider the combined daily metabolic load of benzyl alcohol from all sources including heparin sodium injection multiple-dose vials (contains 10.42 mg of benzyl alcohol per mL) and other drugs containing benzyl alcohol. The minimum amount of benzyl alcohol at which toxicity may occur is not known [see USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS (8.4)].
Thrombocytopenia in patients receiving heparin has been reported at frequencies up to 30%. It can occur 2 to 20 days (average 5 to 9) following the onset of heparin therapy. Obtain platelet counts before and periodically during heparin therapy. Monitor thrombocytopenia of any degree closely. If the count falls below 100,000/mm3 or if recurrent thrombosis develops, promptly discontinue heparin, evaluate for HIT and HITT, and, if necessary, administer an alternative anticoagulant [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.3)].
5.6 Coagulation Testing and Monitoring
When using a full dose heparin regimen, adjust the heparin dose based on frequent blood coagulation tests. If the coagulation test is unduly prolonged or if hemorrhage occurs, discontinue heparin promptly [see OVERDOSAGE (10)]. Periodic platelet counts and hematocrits are recommended during the entire course of heparin therapy, regardless of the route of administration [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION (2.2)].
5.7 Heparin Resistance
Resistance to heparin is frequently encountered in fever, thrombosis, thrombophlebitis, infections with thrombosing tendencies, myocardial infarction, cancer, in postsurgical patients, and patients with antithrombin III deficiency. Close monitoring of coagulation tests is recommended in these cases. Adjustment of heparin doses based on anti-Factor Xa levels may be warranted.
Patients with documented hypersensitivity to heparin should be given the drug only in clearly life-threatening situations.
Because heparin sodium injection is derived from animal tissue, it should be used with caution in patients with a history of allergy.
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