The following additional adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of HUMALOG. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Medication errors in which other insulins have been accidentally substituted for HUMALOG have been identified during postapproval use [see Patient Counseling Information (17)].
A number of drugs affect glucose metabolism and may require insulin dose adjustment and particularly close monitoring.
Following are some of the examples:
- Drugs That May Increase the Blood-Glucose-Lowering Effect of HUMALOG and Susceptibility to Hypoglycemia: Oral antidiabetic agents, salicylates, sulfonamide antibiotics, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, fluoxetine, pramlintide, disopyramide, fibrates, propoxyphene, pentoxifylline, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blocking agents, and somatostatin analogs (e.g., octreotide).
- Drugs That May Reduce the Blood-Glucose-Lowering Effect of HUMALOG: corticosteroids, isoniazid, niacin, estrogens, oral contraceptives, phenothiazines, danazol, diuretics, sympathomimetic agents (e.g., epinephrine, albuterol, terbutaline), somatropin, atypical antipsychotics, glucagon, protease inhibitors, and thyroid hormones.
- Drugs That May Increase or Reduce the Blood-Glucose-Lowering Effect of HUMALOG: beta-blockers, clonidine, lithium salts, and alcohol. Pentamidine may cause hypoglycemia, which may sometimes be followed by hyperglycemia.
- Drugs That May Reduce the Signs of Hypoglycemia: beta-blockers, clonidine, guanethidine, and reserpine.
Pregnancy Category B. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defects, loss, or other adverse outcome regardless of drug exposure. This background risk is increased in pregnancies complicated by hyperglycemia and may be decreased with good metabolic control. It is essential for patients with diabetes or history of gestational diabetes to maintain good metabolic control before conception and throughout pregnancy. In patients with diabetes or gestational diabetes insulin requirements may decrease during the first trimester, generally increase during the second and third trimesters, and rapidly decline after delivery. Careful monitoring of glucose control is essential in these patients. Therefore, female patients should be advised to tell their physicians if they intend to become, or if they become pregnant while taking HUMALOG.
Although there are limited clinical studies of the use of HUMALOG in pregnancy, published studies with human insulins suggest that optimizing overall glycemic control, including postprandial control, before conception and during pregnancy improves fetal outcome.
In a combined fertility and embryo-fetal development study, female rats were given subcutaneous insulin lispro injections of 5 and 20 units/kg/day (0.8 and 3 times the human subcutaneous dose of 1 unit/kg/day, based on units/body surface area, respectively) from 2 weeks prior to cohabitation through Gestation Day 19. There were no adverse effects on female fertility, implantation, or fetal viability and morphology. However, fetal growth retardation was produced at the 20 units/kg/day-dose as indicated by decreased fetal weight and an increased incidence of fetal runts/litter.
In an embryo-fetal development study in pregnant rabbits, insulin lispro doses of 0.1, 0.25, and 0.75 unit/kg/day (0.03, 0.08, and 0.24 times the human subcutaneous dose of 1 unit/kg/day, based on units/body surface area, respectively) were injected subcutaneously on Gestation days 7 through 19. There were no adverse effects on fetal viability, weight, and morphology at any dose.
It is unknown whether insulin lispro is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when HUMALOG is administered to a nursing woman. Use of HUMALOG is compatible with breastfeeding, but women with diabetes who are lactating may require adjustments of their insulin doses.
HUMALOG is approved for use in children for subcutaneous daily injections and for subcutaneous continuous infusion by external insulin pump. HUMALOG has not been studied in pediatric patients younger than 3 years of age. HUMALOG has not been studied in pediatric patients with type 2 diabetes [see Clinical Studies (14)].
As in adults, the dosage of HUMALOG must be individualized in pediatric patients based on metabolic needs and results of frequent monitoring of blood glucose.
Of the total number of subjects (n=2834) in eight clinical studies of HUMALOG, twelve percent (n=338) were 65 years of age or over. The majority of these had type 2 diabetes. HbA1c values and hypoglycemia rates did not differ by age. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic studies to assess the effect of age on the onset of HUMALOG action have not been performed.
Excess insulin administration may cause hypoglycemia and hypokalemia. Mild episodes of hypoglycemia usually can be treated with oral glucose. Adjustments in drug dosage, meal patterns, or exercise may be needed. More severe episodes with coma, seizure, or neurologic impairment may be treated with intramuscular/subcutaneous glucagon or concentrated intravenous glucose. Sustained carbohydrate intake and observation may be necessary because hypoglycemia may recur after apparent clinical recovery. Hypokalemia must be corrected appropriately.
HUMALOG® (insulin lispro injection, USP [rDNA origin]) is a rapid-acting human insulin analog used to lower blood glucose. Insulin lispro is produced by recombinant DNA technology utilizing a non-pathogenic laboratory strain of Escherichia coli. Insulin lispro differs from human insulin in that the amino acid proline at position B28 is replaced by lysine and the lysine in position B29 is replaced by proline. Chemically, it is Lys(B28), Pro(B29) human insulin analog and has the empirical formula C257 H383 N65 O77 S6 and a molecular weight of 5808, both identical to that of human insulin.
HUMALOG has the following primary structure:
HUMALOG is a sterile, aqueous, clear, and colorless solution. Each milliliter of HUMALOG contains insulin lispro 100 units, 16 mg glycerin, 1.88 mg dibasic sodium phosphate, 3.15 mg Metacresol, zinc oxide content adjusted to provide 0.0197 mg zinc ion, trace amounts of phenol, and Water for Injection. Insulin lispro has a pH of 7.0 to 7.8. The pH is adjusted by addition of aqueous solutions of hydrochloric acid 10% and/or sodium hydroxide 10%.
Regulation of glucose metabolism is the primary activity of insulins and insulin analogs, including insulin lispro. Insulins lower blood glucose by stimulating peripheral glucose uptake by skeletal muscle and fat, and by inhibiting hepatic glucose production. Insulins inhibit lipolysis and proteolysis, and enhance protein synthesis.
HUMALOG has been shown to be equipotent to human insulin on a molar basis. One unit of HUMALOG has the same glucose-lowering effect as one unit of regular human insulin. Studies in normal volunteers and patients with diabetes demonstrated that HUMALOG has a more rapid onset of action and a shorter duration of activity than regular human insulin when given subcutaneously.
The time course of action of insulin and insulin analogs, such as HUMALOG, may vary considerably in different individuals or within the same individual. The parameters of HUMALOG activity (time of onset, peak time, and duration) as designated in Figure 1 should be considered only as general guidelines. The rate of insulin absorption, and consequently the onset of activity are known to be affected by the site of injection, exercise, and other variables [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Figure 1: Blood Glucose Levels After Subcutaneous Injection of Regular Human Insulin or HUMALOG (0.2 unit/kg) Immediately Before a High Carbohydrate Meal in 10 Patients with Type 1 Diabetes.a
a Baseline insulin concentration was maintained by infusion of 0.2 mU/min/kg human insulin.
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