HYDROCODONE BITARTRATE AND ACETAMINOPHEN
HYDROCODONE BITARTRATE AND ACETAMINOPHEN — hydrocodone bitartrate and acetaminophen tablet
STAT Rx USA LLC
Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Acetaminophen Tablets USP
Revised: June 2011
Acetaminophen has been associated with cases of acute liver failure, at times resulting in liver transplant and death. Most of the cases of liver injury are associated with the use of acetaminophen at doses that exceed 4000 milligrams per day, and often involve more than one acetaminophen containing product.
Hydrocodone bitartrate and acetaminophen is supplied in tablet form for oral administration.Hydrocodone bitartrate is an opioid analgesic and antitussive and occurs as fine, white crystals or as a crystalline powder. It is affected by light. The chemical name is 4,5α-Epoxy-3-methoxy-17methylmorphinan-6-one tartrate (1:1) hydrate (2:5). It has the following structural formula:
Acetaminophen, 4´-Hydroxyacetanilide, a slightly bitter, white, odorless, crystalline powder, is a non-opiate, non-salicylate analgesic and antipyretic. It has the following structural formula:
Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Acetaminophen Tablets USP for oral administration are available in a variety of strengths as described in the following table.
|2.5 mg/500 mg||2.5 mg||500 mg|
|5 mg/500 mg||5 mg||500 mg|
|7.5 mg/325 mg||7.5 mg||325 mg|
|7.5 mg/500 mg||7.5 mg||500 mg|
|7.5 mg/650 mg||7.5 mg||650 mg|
|7.5 mg/750 mg||7.5 mg||750 mg|
|10 mg/325 mg||10 mg||325 mg|
|10 mg/500 mg||10 mg||500 mg|
|10 mg/650 mg||10 mg||650 mg|
|10 mg/660 mg||10 mg||660 mg|
|10 mg/750 mg||10 mg||750 mg|
In addition, each tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: anhydrous lactose, croscarmellose sodium, crospovidone, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, povidone, starch and stearic acid; except the 7.5 mg/325 mg, 10 mg/325 mg and 10 mg/500 mg tablets do not contain anhydrous lactose. The 7.5 mg/325 mg tablets include FD&C Yellow #6 Aluminum Lake; the 7.5 mg/650 mg tablets include FD&C Red #40 Aluminum Lake; the 10 mg/325 mg and 10 mg/750 mg tablets include D&C Yellow #10 Aluminum Lake; the 10 mg/500 mg tablets include FD&C Blue #2 Aluminum Lake; and the 10 mg/650 mg tablets include FD&C Blue #1 Aluminum Lake and D&C Yellow #10 Aluminum Lake. Meets USP Dissolution Test 1.
Hydrocodone is a semisynthetic narcotic analgesic and antitussive with multiple actions qualitatively similar to those of codeine. Most of these involve the central nervous system and smooth muscle. The precise mechanism of action of hydrocodone and other opiates is not known, although it is believed to relate to the existence of opiate receptors in the central nervous system. In addition to analgesia, narcotics may produce drowsiness, changes in mood and mental clouding.
The analgesic action of acetaminophen involves peripheral influences, but the specific mechanism is as yet undetermined. Antipyretic activity is mediated through hypothalamic heat regulating centers. Acetaminophen inhibits prostaglandin synthetase. Therapeutic doses of acetaminophen have negligible effects on the cardiovascular or respiratory systems; however, toxic doses may cause circulatory failure and rapid, shallow breathing.
The behavior of the individual components is described below.
Hydrocodone: Following a 10 mg oral dose of hydrocodone administered to five adult male subjects, the mean peak concentration was 23.6 ± 5.2 ng/mL. Maximum serum levels were achieved at 1.3 ± 0.3 hours and the half-life was determined to be 3.8 ± 0.3 hours. Hydrocodone exhibits a complex pattern of metabolism including O-demethylation, N-demethylation and 6-keto reduction to the corresponding 6-α- and 6-β- hydroxy-metabolites. See OVERDOSAGE for toxicity information.
Acetaminophen: Acetaminophen is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and is distributed throughout most body tissues. The plasma half-life is 1.25 to 3 hours, but may be increased by liver damage and following overdosage. Elimination of acetaminophen is principally by liver metabolism (conjugation) and subsequent renal excretion of metabolites.
Approximately 85% of an oral dose appears in the urine within 24 hours of administration, most as the glucuronide conjugate, with small amounts of other conjugates and unchanged drug. See OVERDOSAGE for toxicity information.
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Hydrocodone and acetaminophen tablets are indicated for the relief of moderate to moderately severe pain.
This product should not be administered to patients who have previously exhibited hypersensitivity to hydrocodone or acetaminophen.Patients known to be hypersensitive to other opioids may exhibit cross-sensitivity to hydrocodone.
Acetaminophen has been associated with cases of acute liver failure, at times resulting in liver transplant and death. Most of the cases of liver injury are associated with the use of acetaminophen at doses that exceed 4000 milligrams per day, and often involve more than one acetaminophen containing product. The excessive intake of acetaminophen may be intentional to cause self-harm or unintentional as patients attempt to obtain more pain relief or unknowingly take other acetaminophen-containing products.
The risk of acute liver failure is higher in individuals with underlying liver disease and in individuals who ingest alcohol while taking acetaminophen.
Instruct patients to look for acetaminophen or APAP on package labels and not to use more than one product that contains acetaminophen. Instruct patients to seek medical attention immediately upon ingestion of more than 4000 milligrams of acetaminophen per day, even if they feel well.
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