Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Acetaminophen (Page 5 of 8)

Nursing Mothers

Hydrocodone is present in human milk.

The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Acetaminophen Tablets and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Acetaminophen Tablets or from the underlying maternal condition.

Infants exposed to Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Acetaminophen Tablets through breast milk should be monitored for excess sedation and respiratory depression. Withdrawal symptoms can occur in breastfed infants when maternal administration of an opioid analgesic is stopped, or when breast-feeding is stopped.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness of Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Acetaminophen Tablets in pediatric patients have not been established.

Geriatric Use

Elderly patients (aged 65 years or older) may have increased sensitivity to Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Acetaminophen Tablets. In general, use caution when selecting a dosage for an elderly patient, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

Respiratory depression is the chief risk for elderly patients treated with opioids, and has occurred after large initial doses were administered to patients who were not opioid-tolerant or when opioids were co-administered with other agents that depress respiration. Titrate the dosage of Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Acetaminophen Tablets slowly in geriatric patients and follow closely for signs of central nervous system and respiratory depression [see WARNINGS].

Hydrocodone and acetaminophen are known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.

Hepatic Impairment

Patients with hepatic impairment may have higher plasma hydrocodone concentrations than those with normal function. Use a low initial dose of Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Acetaminophen Tablets in patients with hepatic impairment and follow closely for adverse events such as respiratory depression and sedation.

Renal Impairment

Patients with renal impairment may have higher plasma hydrocodone concentrations than those with normal function. Use a low initial dose Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Acetaminophen Tablets in patients with renal impairment and follow closely for adverse events such as respiratory depression and sedation.

ADVERSE REACTIONS


The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of hydrocodone and acetaminophen tablets and Tablets. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
The most frequently reported adverse reactions are light-headedness, dizziness, sedation, nausea and vomiting.
Other adverse reactions include
Central Nervous System
Drowsiness, mental clouding, lethargy, impairment of mental and physical performance, anxiety, fear, dysphoria, psychic dependence, mood changes.

Gastrointestinal System
constipation.
Genitourinary System
Ureteral spasm, spasm of vesical sphincters and urinary retention.
Special Senses
Cases of hearing impairment or permanent loss have been reported predominantly in patients with chronic overdose.
Dermatological
Skin rash, pruritus, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, allergic reactionsHematological — Thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis.
Serotonin syndrome: Cases of serotonin syndrome, a potentially life-threatening condition, have been reported during concomitant use of opioids with serotonergic drugs.
Adrenal insufficiency: Cases of adrenal insufficiency have been reported with opioid use, more often following greater than one month of use.
Anaphylaxis: Anaphylaxis has been reported with ingredients contained in Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Acetaminophen Tablets. • Androgen deficiency: Cases of androgen deficiency have occurred with chronic use of opioids [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].

DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE

Controlled Substance
Hydrocodone bitartrate and acetaminophen tablets contains hydrocodone and acetaminophen, a Schedule CII controlled substance.
Abuse
Hydrocodone bitartrate and acetaminophen tablets contains hydrocodone and acetaminophen, a substance with a high potential for abuse similar to other opioids including fentanyl, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, oxycodone, oxymorphone, and tapentadol, can be abused and is subject to misuse, addiction, and criminal diversion [see WARNINGS].
All patients treated with opioids require careful monitoring for signs of abuse and addiction, since use of opioid analgesic products carries the risk of addiction even under appropriate medical use.
Prescription drug abuse is the intentional non-therapeutic use of a prescription drug, even once, for its rewarding psychological or physiological effects.
Drug addiction is a cluster of behavioral, cognitive, and physiological phenomena that develop after repeated substance use and includes: a strong desire to take the drug, difficulties in controlling its use, persisting in its use despite harmful consequences, a higher priority given to drug use than to other activities and obligations, increased tolerance, and sometimes a physical withdrawal.
“Drug-seeking” behavior is very common in persons with substance use disorders. Drug-seeking tactics include emergency calls or visits near the end of office hours, refusal to undergo appropriate examination, testing, or referral, repeated “loss” of prescriptions, tampering with prescriptions and reluctance to provide prior medical records or contact information for other treating health care provider(s). “Doctor shopping” (visiting multiple prescribers) to obtain additional prescriptions is common among drug abusers and people suffering from untreated addiction. Preoccupation with achieving adequate pain relief can be appropriate behavior in a patient with poor pain control.
Abuse and addiction are separate and distinct from physical dependence and tolerance. Health care providers should be aware that addiction may not be accompanied by concurrent tolerance and symptoms of physical dependence in all addicts. In addition, abuse of opioids can occur in the absence of true addiction.
Hydrocodone bitartrate and acetaminophen tablets, like other opioids, can be diverted for non-medical use into illicit channels of distribution. Careful record-keeping of prescribing information, including quantity, frequency, and renewal requests, as required by state and federal law, is strongly advised. Proper assessment of the patient, proper prescribing practices, periodic re-evaluation of therapy, and proper dispensing and storage are appropriate measures that help to limit abuse of opioid drugs.
Risks Specific to Abuse of Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Acetaminophen Tablets
Hydrocodone bitartrate and acetaminophen tablets are for oral use only. Hydrocodone bitartrate and acetaminophen tablets pose a risk of overdose and death. The risk is increased with concurrent abuse of Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Acetaminophen Tablets with alcohol and other central nervous system depressants.
Parenteral drug abuse is commonly associated with transmission of infectious diseases such as hepatitis and HIV.


Dependence
Both tolerance and physical dependence can develop during chronic opioid therapy. Tolerance is the need for increasing doses of opioids to maintain a defined effect such as analgesia (in the absence of disease progression or other external factors). Tolerance may occur to both the desired and undesired effects of drugs, and may develop at different rates for different effects.
Physical dependence is a physiological state in which the body adapts to the drug after a period of regular exposure, resulting in withdrawal symptoms after abrupt discontinuation or a significant dosage reduction of a drug. Withdrawal also may be precipitated through the administration of drugs with opioid antagonist activity (e.g., naloxone, nalmefene), mixed agonist/antagonist analgesics (pentazocine, butorphanol, nalbuphine), or partial agonists (buprenorphine). Physical dependence may not occur to a clinically significant degree until after several days to weeks of continued opioid usage.
Do not abruptly discontinue Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Acetaminophen Tablets in a patient physically dependent on opioids. Rapid tapering of Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Acetaminophen Tablets in a patient physically dependent on opioids may lead to serious withdrawal symptoms, uncontrolled pain, and suicide. Rapid discontinuation has also been associated with attempts to find other sources of opioid analgesics, which may be confused with drug-seeking for abuse.
When discontinuing Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Acetaminophen Tablets, gradually taper the dosage using a patient specific plan that considers the following: the dose of Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Acetaminophen Tablets the patient has been taking, the duration of treatment, and the physical and psychological attributes of the patient. To improve the likelihood of a successful taper and minimize withdrawal symptoms, it is important that the opioid tapering schedule is agreed upon by the patient. In patients taking opioids for a long duration at high doses, ensure that a multimodal approach to pain management, including mental health support (if needed), is in place prior to initiating an opioid analgesic taper [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, WARNINGS ].
Infants born to mothers physically dependent on opioids will also be physically dependent and may exhibit respiratory difficulties and withdrawal signs [see PRECAUTIONS; Pregnancy].

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