Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Acetaminophen (Page 6 of 8)

OVERDOSAGE

Following an acute overdosage, toxicity may result from hydrocodone or acetaminophen.
Clinical Presentation

Acute overdose with hydrocodone bitartrate and acetaminophen tablets can be manifested by respiratory depression, somnolence progressing to stupor or coma, skeletal muscle flaccidity, cold and clammy skin, constricted pupils, and, in some cases, pulmonary edema, bradycardia, hypotension, partial or complete airway obstruction, atypical snoring, and death. Marked mydriasis rather than miosis may be seen with hypoxia in overdose situations.
Acetaminophen

Dose-dependent, potentially fatal hepatic necrosis is the most serious adverse effect of acetaminophen overdosage. Renal tubular necrosis, hypoglycemic coma and coagulation defects may also occur.

Early symptoms following a potentially hepatotoxic overdose may include: nausea, vomiting, diaphoresis and general malaise. Clinical and laboratory evidence of hepatic toxicity may not be apparent until 48 to 72 hours post-ingestion.

Treatment of Overdose
Hydrocodone

In case of overdose, priorities are the reestablishment of a patent and protected airway and institution of assisted or controlled ventilation, if needed. Employ other supportive measures (including oxygen and vasopressors) in the management of circulatory shock and pulmonary edema as indicated. Cardiac arrest or arrhythmias will require advanced life-support techniques.

The opioid antagonists, naloxone or nalmefene, are specific antidotes to respiratory depression resulting from opioid overdose. For clinically significant respiratory or circulatory depression secondary to hydrocodone bitartrate and acetaminophen tablets overdose, administer an opioid antagonist. Opioid antagonists should not be administered in the absence of clinically significant respiratory or circulatory depression secondary to hydrocodone bitartrate and acetaminophen tablets overdose.

Because the duration of opioid reversal is expected to be less than the duration of action of hydrocodone bitartrate and acetaminophen tablets in hydrocodone bitartrate and acetaminophen tablets, carefully monitor the patient until spontaneous respiration is reliably re-established. If the response to an opioid antagonist is suboptimal or only brief in nature, administer additional antagonist as directed by the product’s prescribing information.

In an individual physically dependent on opioids, administration of the recommended usual dosage of the antagonist will precipitate an acute withdrawal syndrome. The severity of the withdrawal symptoms experienced will depend on the degree of physical dependence and the dose of the antagonist administered. If a decision is made to treat serious respiratory depression in the physically dependent patient, administration of the antagonist should be begun with care and by titration with smaller than usual doses of the antagonist.

Acetaminophen

Gastric decontamination with activated charcoal should be administered just prior to N-acetylcysteine (NAC) to decrease systemic absorption if acetaminophen ingestion is known or suspected to have occurred within a few hours of presentation. Serum acetaminophen levels should be obtained immediately if the patient presents 4 hours or more after ingestion to assess potential risk of hepatotoxicity; acetaminophen levels drawn less than 4 hours post-ingestion may be misleading. To obtain the best possible outcome, NAC should be administered as soon as possible where impending or evolving liver injury is suspected. Intravenous NAC may be administered when circumstances preclude oral administration.

Vigorous supportive therapy is required in severe intoxication. Procedures to limit the continuing absorption of the drug must be readily performed since the hepatic injury is dose dependent and occurs early in the course of intoxication.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION


Important Dosage and Administration Instructions Use the lowest effective dosage for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals [see WARNINGS ].

Initiate the dosing regimen for each patient individually, taking into account the patient’s severity of pain, patient response, prior analgesic treatment experience, and risk factors for addiction, abuse, and misuse [see WARNINGS].

Follow patients closely for respiratory depression, especially within the first 24 to 72 hours of initiating therapy and following dosage increases with hydrocodone bitartrate and acetaminophen tablets and adjust the dosage accordingly [see WARNINGS].

Initial Dosage

Initiating Treatment with Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Acetaminophen Tablets

5 mg/325 mg The usual adult dosage is one or two tablets every four to six hours as needed for pain.The total daily dosage should not exceed 8 tablets.
7.5 mg/325 mg The usual adult dosage is one tablet every four to six hours as needed for pain. The total daily dosage should not exceed 6 tablets.
10 mg/325 mg The usual adult dosage is one tablet every four to six hours as needed for pain. The total daily dosage should not exceed 6 tablets.

Conversion from Other Opioids to Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Acetaminophen Tablets

There is inter-patient variability in the potency of opioid drugs and opioid formulations. Therefore, a conservative approach is advised when determining the total daily dosage of Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Acetaminophen Tablets. It is safer to underestimate a patient’s 24-hour Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Acetaminophen Tablets dosage than to overestimate the 24-hour Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Acetaminophen Tablets dosage and manage an adverse reaction due to overdose.

Conversion from Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Acetaminophen Tablets to Extended-Release Hydrocodone

The relative bioavailability of hydrocodone from Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Acetaminophen Tablets compared to extended-release hydrocodone products is unknown, so conversion to extended-release products must be accompanied by close observation for signs of excessive sedation and respiratory depression.


Titration and Maintenance of Therapy
Individually titrate hydrocodone bitartrate and acetaminophen tablets to a dose that provides adequate analgesia and minimizes adverse reactions. Continually reevaluate patients receiving hydrocodone bitartrate and acetaminophen tablets to assess the maintenance of pain control and the relative incidence of adverse reactions, as well as monitoring for the development of addiction, abuse, or misuse [see WARNINGS]. Frequent communication is important among the prescriber, other members of the healthcare team, the patient, and the caregiver/family during periods of changing analgesic requirements, including initial titration.

If the level of pain increases after dosage stabilization, attempt to identify the source of increased pain before increasing the hydrocodone bitartrate and acetaminophen tablets dosage. If unacceptable opioid-related adverse reactions are observed, consider reducing the dosage. Adjust the dosage to obtain an appropriate balance between management of pain and opioid-related adverse reactions.

Safe Reduction or Discontinuation of Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Acetaminophen Tablets

Do not abruptly discontinue hydrocodone bitartrate and acetaminophen tablets in patients who may be physically dependent on opioids. Rapid discontinuation of opioid analgesics in patients who are physically dependent on opioids has resulted in serious withdrawal symptoms, uncontrolled pain, and suicide. Rapid discontinuation has also been associated with attempts to find other sources of opioid analgesics, which may be confused with drug-seeking for abuse. Patients may also attempt to treat their pain or withdrawal symptoms with illicit opioids, such as heroin, and other substances.

When a decision has been made to decrease the dose or discontinue therapy in an opioid-dependent patient taking hydrocodone bitartrate and acetaminophen tablets, there are a variety of factors that should be considered, including the dose of hydrocodone bitartrate and acetaminophen tablets the patient has been taking, the duration of treatment, the type of pain being treated, and the physical and psychological attributes of the patient. It is important to ensure ongoing care of the patient and to agree on an appropriate tapering schedule and follow-up plan so that patient and provider goals and expectations are clear and realistic. When opioid analgesics are being discontinued due to a suspected substance use disorder, evaluate and treat the patient, or refer for evaluation and treatment of the substance use disorder. Treatment should include evidence-based approaches, such as medication assisted treatment of opioid use disorder. Complex patients with co-morbid pain and substance use disorders may benefit from referral to a specialist.

There are no standard opioid tapering schedules that are suitable for all patients. Good clinical practice dictates a patient-specific plan to taper the dose of the opioid gradually. For patients on hydrocodone bitartrate and acetaminophen tablets who are physically opioid-dependent, initiate the taper by a small enough increment (e.g., no greater than 10% to 25% of the total daily dose) to avoid withdrawal symptoms, and proceed with dose lowering at an interval of every 2 to 4 weeks. Patients who have been taking opioids for briefer periods of time may tolerate a more rapid taper.

It may be necessary to provide the patient with lower dosage strengths to accomplish a successful taper. Reassess the patient frequently to manage pain and withdrawal symptoms, should they emerge. Common withdrawal symptoms include restlessness, lacrimation, rhinorrhea, yawning, perspiration, chills, myalgia, and mydriasis. Other signs and symptoms also may develop, including irritability, anxiety, backache, joint pain, weakness, abdominal cramps, insomnia, nausea, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, or increased blood pressure, respiratory rate, or heart rate. If withdrawal symptoms arise, it may be necessary to pause the taper for a period of time or raise the dose of the opioid analgesic to the previous dose, and then proceed with a slower taper. In addition, monitor patients for any changes in mood, emergence of suicidal thoughts, or use of other substances.

When managing patients taking opioid analgesics, particularly those who have been treated for a long duration and/or with high doses for chronic pain, ensure that a multimodal approach to pain management, including mental health support (if needed), is in place prior to initiating an opioid analgesic taper. A multimodal approach to pain management may optimize the treatment of chronic pain, as well as assist with the successful tapering of the opioid analgesic [see WARNINGS/ Withdrawal, DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE ].

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