Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Aspirin

HYDROCODONE BITARTRATE AND ASPIRIN- hydrocodone bitartrate and aspirin tablet
LGM Pharma Solutions, LLC

Revised: May 2021

WARNING: ADDICTION, ABUSE, AND MISUSE; RISK EVALUATION AND MITIGATION STRATEGY (REMS); LIFE-THREATENING RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION; ACCIDENTAL INGESTION; NEONATAL OPIOID WITHDRAWAL SYNDROME; CYTOCHROME P450 3A4 INTERACTION; and RISKS FROM CONCOMITANT USE WITH BENZODIAZEPINES OR OTHER CNS DEPRESSANTS

Addiction, Abuse, and Misuse

Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Aspirin Tablets expose patients and other users to the risks of opioid addiction, abuse, and misuse, which can lead to overdose and death. Assess each patient’s risk prior to prescribing Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Aspirin Tablets, and monitor all patients regularly for the development of these behaviors and conditions [see WARNINGS].

Opioid Analgesic Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS)

To ensure that the benefits of opioid analgesics outweigh the risks of addiction, abuse, and misuse, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has required a REMS for these products [see WARNINGS]. Under the requirements of the REMS, drug companies with approved opioid analgesic products must make REMS-compliant education programs available to healthcare providers. Healthcare providers are strongly encouraged to

complete a REMS-compliant education program,
counsel patients and/or their caregivers , with every prescription, on safe use, serious risks, and storage, and disposal of these products,
emphasize to patients and their caregivers the importance of reading the Medication Guide every time it is provided by their pharmacist, and
consider other tools to improve patient, household, and community safety.

Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression

Serious, life-threatening, or fatal respiratory depression may occur with use of Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Aspirin Tablets. Monitor for respiratory depression, especially during initiation of Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Aspirin Tablets or following a dose increase [see WARNINGS].

Accidental Ingestion

Accidental ingestion of Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Aspirin Tablets, especially by children, can result in a fatal overdose of hydrocodone [see WARNINGS].

Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome

Prolonged use of Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Aspirin Tablets during pregnancy can result in neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, which may be life-threatening if not recognized and treated, and requires management according to protocols developed by neonatology experts. If opioid use is required for a prolonged period in a pregnant woman, advise the patient of the risk of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome and ensure that appropriate treatment will be available [see WARNINGS].

Cytochrome P450 3A4 Interaction

The concomitant use of Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Aspirin Tablets with all Cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitors may result in an increase in hydrocodone plasma concentrations, which could increase or prolong adverse reactions and may cause potentially fatal respiratory depression. In addition, discontinuation of a concomitantly used Cytochrome P450 3A4 inducer may result in an increase in hydrocodone plasma concentrations. Monitor patients receiving Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Aspirin Tablets and any Cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitor or inducer for signs of respiratory depression or sedation [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, WARNINGS, PRECAUTIONS; Drug Interactions].

Risks From Concomitant Use with Benzodiazepines Or Other CNS Depressants

Concomitant use of opioids with benzodiazepines or other central nervous system (CNS) depressants, including alcohol, may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death [see WARNINGS, PRECAUTIONS; Drug Interactions]

Reserve concomitant prescribing of Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Aspirin Tablets and benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate.
Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required.
Follow patients for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.

DESCRIPTION

Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Aspirin Tablets are immediate-release tablets for oral administration only.

Each Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Aspirin Tablet, 5 mg/500 mg contains:
Hydrocodone Bitartrate …… 5 mg
Aspirin …………….. 500 mg

Hydrocodone Bitartrate is an opioid agonist and occurs as fine, white crystals or as a crystalline powder. It is affected by light. It is soluble in water, slightly soluble in alcohol, and insoluble in ether and chloroform. The chemical name is: 4,5α-epoxy-3-methoxy-17-methylmorphinan-6-one tartrate (1:1) hydrate (2:5). It has the following structural formula:

Hydrocodone Bitartrate SF
(click image for full-size original)

Aspirin, acetylsalicylic acid, is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug which is an odorless white, needle-like crystalline or powdery substance. The aspirin component is 2-(acetyloxy)-, Benzoic acid. When exposed to moisture, aspirin hydrolyzes into salicylic and acetic acids, and gives off a vinegary-odor. It is highly lipid soluble and slightly soluble in water; freely soluble in alcohol; soluble in chloroform and in ether; sparingly soluble in absolute ether. Its structure is as follows:

aspirin sf

In addition, each tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: Microcrystalline Cellulose, Anhydrous Lactose, Corn Starch, Hypromellose, Crospovidone, Stearic Acid, Talc, Colloidal Silicon Dioxide.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Mechanism of Action

Hydrocodone is full opioid agonist with relative selectivity for the mu-opioid (μ) receptor, although it can interact with other opioid receptors at higher doses. The principal therapeutic action of hydrocodone is analgesia. Like all full opioid agonists, there is no ceiling effect for analgesia with hydrocodone. Clinically, dosage is titrated to provide adequate analgesia and may be limited by adverse reactions, including respiratory and CNS depression.

The precise mechanism of the analgesic action is unknown. However, specific CNS opioid receptors for endogenous compounds with opioid-like activity have been identified throughout the brain and spinal cord and are thought to play a role in the analgesic effects of this drug.

Aspirin is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is a more potent inhibitor of both prostaglandin synthesis and platelet aggregation than other salicylic acid derivatives. The differences in activity between aspirin and salicylic acid are thought to be due to the acetyl group on the aspirin molecule. This acetyl group is responsible for the inactivation of cyclo-oxygenase via acetylation.

Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) works by inhibiting the body’s production of prostaglandins, including prostaglandins involved in inflammation. Prostaglandins cause pain sensations by stimulating muscle contractions and dilating blood vessels throughout the body. In the CNS, aspirin works on the hypothalamus heat-regulating center to reduce fever, however, other mechanisms may be involved.

Pharmacodynamics

Aspirin affects platelet aggregation by irreversibly inhibiting prostaglandin cyclo-oxygenase. This effect lasts for the life of the platelet and prevents the formation of the platelet aggregating factor thromboxane A2. Nonacetylated salicylates do not inhibit this enzyme and have no effect on platelet aggregation. At somewhat higher doses, aspirin reversibly inhibits the formation of prostaglandin I2 (prostacyclin), which is an arterial vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation.

At higher doses aspirin is an effective anti-inflammatory agent, partially due to inhibition of inflammatory mediators via cyclo-oxygenase inhibition in peripheral tissues. In vitro studies suggest that other mediators of inflammation may also be suppressed by aspirin administration, although the precise mechanism of action has not been elucidated. It is this nonspecific suppression of cyclo-oxygenase activity in peripheral tissues following large doses that leads to its primary side effect of gastric irritation. [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].

Effects on the Central Nervous System

Hydrocodone produces respiratory depression by direct action on brain stem respiratory centers. The respiratory depression involves a reduction in the responsiveness of the brain stem respiratory centers to both increases in carbon dioxide tension and electrical stimulation.

Hydrocodone causes miosis, even in total darkness. Pinpoint pupils are a sign of opioid overdose but are not pathognomonic (e.g., pontine lesions of hemorrhagic or ischemic origins may produce similar findings). Marked mydriasis rather than miosis may be seen due to hypoxia in overdose situations.

Effects on the Gastrointestinal Tract and Other Smooth Muscle

Hydrocodone causes a reduction in motility associated with an increase in smooth muscle tone in the antrum of the stomach and duodenum. Digestion of food in the small intestine is delayed and propulsive contractions are decreased. Propulsive peristaltic waves in the colon are decreased, while tone may be increased to the point of spasm, resulting in constipation. Other opioid-induced effects may include a reduction in biliary and pancreatic secretions, spasm of sphincter of Oddi, and transient elevations in serum amylase.

Aspirin can produce gastrointestinal injury (lesions, ulcers) through a mechanism that is not yet completely understood but may involve a reduction in eicosanoid synthesis by the gastric mucosa. Decreased production of prostaglandins may compromise the defenses of the gastric mucosa and the activity of substances involved in tissue repair and ulcer healing.

Effects on the Cardiovascular System

Hydrocodone produces peripheral vasodilation which may result in orthostatic hypotension or syncope. Manifestations of histamine release and/or peripheral vasodilation may include pruritus, flushing, red eyes, sweating, and/or orthostatic hypotension.

Effects on the Endocrine System

Opioids inhibit the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, and luteinizing hormone (LH) in humans [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. They also stimulate prolactin, growth hormone (GH) secretion, and pancreatic secretion of insulin and glucagon.

Chronic use of opioids may influence the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, leading to androgen deficiency that may manifest as symptoms as low libido, impotence, erectile dysfunction, amenorrhea, or infertility. The causal role of opioids in the syndrome of hypogonadism is unknown because the various medical, physical, lifestyle, and psychological stressors that may influence gonadal hormone levels have not been adequately controlled for in studies conducted to date [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].

Effects on the Immune System

Opioids have been shown to have a variety of effects on components of the immune system. The clinical significance of these findings is unknown. Overall, the effects of opioids appear to be modestly immunosuppressive.

Concentration-Efficacy Relationships

The minimum effective analgesic concentration will vary widely among patients, especially among patients who have been previously treated with potent agonist opioids. The minimum effective analgesic concentration of hydrocodone for any individual patient may increase over time due to an increase in pain, the development of a new pain syndrome, and/or the development of analgesic tolerance [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].

Concentration-Adverse Reaction Relationships

There is a relationship between increasing hydrocodone plasma concentration and increasing frequency of dose-related opioid adverse reactions such as nausea, vomiting, CNS effects, and respiratory depression. In opioid-tolerant patients, the situation may be altered by the development of tolerance to opioid-related adverse reactions [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].

The dose of Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Aspirin Tablets must be individualized because the effective analgesic dose for some patients will be too high to be tolerated by other patients [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].

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