In single-dose studies of post surgical pain (abdominal, gynecological, orthopedic), 940 patients were studied at doses of one or two tablets. Hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen produced greater efficacy than placebo and each of its individual components given at the same dose. No advantage was demonstrated for the two-tablet dose.
Hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen tablets are indicated for the short-term management of acute pain severe enough to require an opioid analgesic and for which alternative treatments are inadequate.
Limitations of Use
Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen tablets and other treatment options before deciding to use hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen tablets. Use the lowest effective dosage for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals (see WARNINGS: Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events, Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, and Perforation). Do not use hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen tablets for the treatment of conditions such as osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis.
Because of the risks of addiction, abuse, and misuse with opioids, even at recommended doses (see WARNINGS: Addiction, Abuse, and Misuse), reserve hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen tablets for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options (e.g., non-opioid analgesics):
- Have not been tolerated, or are not expected to be tolerated,
- Have not provided adequate analgesia, or are not expected to provide adequate analgesia
Hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen tablets are contraindicated in patients with:
- Significant respiratory depression (see WARNINGS: Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression).
- Acute or severe bronchial asthma in an unmonitored setting or in the absence of resuscitative equipment (see WARNINGS: Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression in Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Disease or in Elderly, Cachectic, or Debilitated Patients).
- Known or suspected gastrointestinal obstruction, including paralytic ileus (see WARNINGS: Risks of Use in Patients with Gastrointestinal Conditions).
- Known hypersensitivity (e.g., anaphylactic reactions, serious skin reactions) to hydrocodone, ibuprofen, or any components of the drug product (see WARNINGS: Anaphylactic Reactions, Serious Skin Reactions). Patients known to be hypersensitive to other opioids may exhibit cross-sensitivity to hydrocodone.
- History of asthma, urticaria, or other allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs. Severe, sometimes fatal, anaphylactic reactions to NSAIDs have been reported in such patients (see WARNINGS: Anaphylactic Reactions, Exacerbation of Asthma Related to Aspirin Sensitivity).
- In the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery (see WARNINGS: Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events).
Addiction, Abuse, and Misuse
Hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen contains hydrocodone, a Schedule II controlled substance. As an opioid-containing product, hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen exposes users to the risks of addiction, abuse, and misuse (see DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE).
Although the risk of addiction in any individual is unknown, it can occur in patients appropriately prescribed hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen. Addiction can occur at recommended dosages and if the drug is misused or abused.
Assess each patient’s risk for opioid addiction, abuse, or misuse prior to prescribing hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen, and monitor all patients receiving hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen for the development of these behaviors and conditions. Risks are increased in patients with a personal or family history of substance abuse (including drug or alcohol abuse or addiction) or mental illness (e.g., major depression). The potential for these risks should not, however, prevent the proper management of pain in any given patient. Patients at increased risk may be prescribed opioid-containing products such as hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen, but use in such patients necessitates intensive counseling about the risks and proper use of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen along with intensive monitoring for signs of addiction, abuse, and misuse. Consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose (see WARNINGS, Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression; Dosage and Administration, Patient Access to Naloxone for the Emergency Treatment of Opioid Overdose).
Opioids are sought by drug abusers and people with addiction disorders, and are subject to criminal diversion. Consider these risks when prescribing or dispensing hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen. Strategies to reduce these risks include prescribing the drug in the smallest appropriate quantity and advising the patient on the proper disposal of unused drug (see PRECAUTIONS: Information for Patients). Contact local state professional licensing board or state controlled substances authority for information on how to prevent and detect abuse or diversion of this product.
Opioid Analgesic Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS)
To ensure that the benefits of opioid analgesics outweigh the risks of addiction, abuse, and misuse, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has required a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) for these products. Under the requirements of the REMS, drug companies with approved opioid analgesic products must make REMS-compliant education programs available to healthcare providers. Healthcare providers are strongly encouraged to do all of the following:
- Complete a REMS-compliant education program offered by an accredited provider of continuing education (CE) or another education program that includes all the elements of the FDA Education Blueprint for Health Care Providers Involved in the Management or Support of Patients with Pain.
- Discuss the safe use, serious risks, and proper storage and disposal of opioid analgesics with patients and/or their caregivers every time these medicines are prescribed. The Patient Counseling Guide (PCG) can be obtained at this link: www.fda.gov/OpioidAnalgesicREMSPCG.
- Emphasize to patients and their caregivers the importance of reading the Medication Guide that they will receive from their pharmacist every time an opioid analgesic is dispensed to them.
- Consider using other tools to improve patient, household, and community safety, such as patient-prescriber agreements that reinforce patient-prescriber responsibilities.
To obtain further information on the opioid analgesic REMS and for a list of accredited REMS CME/CE, call 800-503-0784, or log on to www.opioidanalgesicrems.com. The FDA Blueprint can be found at www.fda.gov/OpioidAnalgesicREMSBlueprint.
Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression
Serious, life-threatening, or fatal respiratory depression has been reported with the use of opioids, even when used as recommended. Respiratory depression, if not immediately recognized and treated, may lead to respiratory arrest and death. Management of respiratory depression may include close observation, supportive measures, and use of opioid antagonists, depending on the patient’s clinical status (see OVERDOSAGE). Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) retention from opioid-induced respiratory depression can exacerbate the sedating effects of opioids.
While serious, life-threatening, or fatal respiratory depression can occur at any time during the use of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen, the risk is greatest during the initiation of therapy or following a dosage increase. Monitor patients closely for respiratory depression, especially within the first 24 to 72 hours of initiating therapy with and following dosage increases of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen.
To reduce the risk of respiratory depression, proper dosing and titration of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen are essential (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Overestimating the hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen dosage when converting patients from another opioid product can result in a fatal overdose with the first dose.
Accidental ingestion of even one dose of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen, especially by children, can result in respiratory depression and death due to an overdose of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen.
Educate patients and caregivers on how to recognize respiratory depression and emphasize the importance of calling 911 or getting emergency medical help right away in the event of a known or suspected overdose (see PRECAUTIONS, Information for Patients/Caregivers).
Opioids can cause sleep-related breathing disorders including central sleep apnea (CSA) and sleep-related hypoxemia. Opioid use increases the risk of CSA in a dose-dependent fashion. In patients who present with CSA, consider decreasing the opioid dosage using best practices for opioid taper (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
Patient Access to Naloxone for the Emergency Treatment of Opioid Overdose
Discuss the availability of naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose with the patient and caregiver and assess the potential need for access to naloxone, both when initiating and renewing treatment with hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen. Inform patients and caregivers about the various ways to obtain naloxone as permitted by individual state naloxone dispensing and prescribing requirements or guidelines (e.g., by prescription, directly from a pharmacist, or as part of a community-based program). Educate patients and caregivers on how to recognize respiratory depression and emphasize the importance of calling 911 or getting emergency medical help, even if naloxone is administered (see PRECAUTIONS, Information for Patients/Caregivers).
Consider prescribing naloxone, based on the patient’s risk factors for overdose, such as concomitant use of other CNS depressants, a history of opioid use disorder, or prior opioid overdose. The presence of risk factors for overdose should not prevent the proper management of pain in any given patient. Also consider prescribing naloxone if the patient has household members (including children) or other close contacts at risk for accidental ingestion or overdose. If naloxone is prescribed, educate patients and caregivers on how to treat with naloxone (see WARNINGS, Addiction, Abuse, and Misuse, and Risks from Concomitant Use with Benzodiazepines or Other CNS Depressants; PRECAUTIONS, Information for Patients/Caregivers).
Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome
Prolonged use of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen during pregnancy can result in withdrawal in the neonate. Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, unlike opioid withdrawal syndrome in adults, may be life-threatening if not recognized and treated, and requires management according to protocols developed by neonatology experts. Observe newborns for signs of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome and manage accordingly. Advise pregnant women using opioids for a prolonged period of the risk of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome and ensure that appropriate treatment will be available (see PRECAUTIONS: Pregnancy,Information for Patients).
Risks of Concomitant Use or Discontinuation of Cytochrome P450 3A4 Inhibitors and Inducers
Concomitant use of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen with a CYP3A4 inhibitor, such as macrolide antibiotics (e.g., erythromycin), azole-antifungal agents (e.g., ketoconazole), and protease inhibitors (e.g., ritonavir), may increase plasma concentrations of hydrocodone and prolong opioid adverse reactions, which may cause potentially fatal respiratory depression (see WARNINGS: Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression), particularly when an inhibitor is added after a stable dose of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen is achieved. Similarly, discontinuation of a CYP3A4 inducer, such as rifampin, carbamazepine, and phenytoin, in hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen-treated patients may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions. When using hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen with CYP3A4 inhibitors or discontinuing CYP3A4 inducers in hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen-treated patients, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider dosage reduction of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen until stable drug effects are achieved (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION,PRECAUTIONS: Drug Interactions).
Concomitant use of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen with CYP3A4 inducers or discontinuation of a CYP3A4 inhibitor could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy or, possibly, lead to a withdrawal syndrome in a patient who had developed physical dependence to hydrocodone. When using hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen with CYP3A4 inducers or discontinuing CYP3A4 inhibitors, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider increasing the opioid dosage if needed to maintain adequate analgesia or if symptoms of opioid withdrawal occur (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION,PRECAUTIONS: Drug Interactions).
Risks from Concomitant Use with Benzodiazepines or Other CNS Depressants
Profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death may result from the concomitant use of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen with benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants (e.g., non-benzodiazepine sedatives/hypnotics, anxiolytics, tranquilizers, muscle relaxants, general anesthetics, antipsychotics, other opioids, alcohol). Because of these risks, reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate.
Observational studies have demonstrated that concomitant use of opioid analgesics and benzodiazepines increases the risk of drug-related mortality compared to use of opioid analgesics alone. Because of similar pharmacological properties, it is reasonable to expect similar risk with the concomitant use of other CNS depressant drugs with opioid analgesics (see PRECAUTIONS: Drug Interactions).
If the decision is made to prescribe a benzodiazepine or other CNS depressant concomitantly with an opioid analgesic, prescribe the lowest effective dosages and minimum durations of concomitant use. In patients already receiving an opioid analgesic, prescribe a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine or other CNS depressant than indicated in the absence of an opioid, and titrate based on clinical response. If an opioid analgesic is initiated in a patient already taking a benzodiazepine or other CNS depressant, prescribe a lower initial dose of the opioid analgesic, and titrate based on clinical response. Follow patients closely for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
If concomitant use is warranted, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose (see WARNINGS, Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression; DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, Patient Access to Naloxone for the Emergency Treatment of Opioid Overdose).
Advise both patients and caregivers about the risks of respiratory depression and sedation when hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen is used with benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants (including alcohol and illicit drugs). Advise patients not to drive or operate heavy machinery until the effects of concomitant use of the benzodiazepine or other CNS depressant have been determined. Screen patients for risk of substance use disorders, including opioid abuse and misuse, and warn them of the risk for overdose and death associated with the use of additional CNS depressants including alcohol and illicit drugs (see PRECAUTIONS: Drug Interactions,Information for Patients).
Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression in Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Disease or in Elderly, Cachectic, or Debilitated Patients
The use of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen in patients with acute or severe bronchial asthma in an unmonitored setting or in the absence of resuscitative equipment is contraindicated.
Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Disease: Hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen-treated patients with significant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or cor pulmonale, and those with a substantially decreased respiratory reserve, hypoxia, hypercapnia, or pre-existing respiratory depression are at increased risk of decreased respiratory drive including apnea, even at recommended dosages of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen (see WARNINGS: Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression).
Elderly, Cachectic, or Debilitated Patients: Life-threatening respiratory depression is more likely to occur in elderly, cachectic, or debilitated patients because they may have altered pharmacokinetics or altered clearance compared to younger, healthier patients (see WARNINGS: Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression).
Monitor such patients closely, particularly when initiating and titrating hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen and when hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen is given concomitantly with other drugs that depress respiration (see WARNINGS: Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression). Alternatively, consider the use of non-opioid analgesics in these patients.
Cases of adrenal insufficiency have been reported with opioid use, more often following greater than one month of use. Presentation of adrenal insufficiency may include non-specific symptoms and signs including nausea, vomiting, anorexia, fatigue, weakness, dizziness, and low blood pressure. If adrenal insufficiency is suspected, confirm the diagnosis with diagnostic testing as soon as possible. If adrenal insufficiency is diagnosed, treat with physiologic replacement doses of corticosteroids. Wean the patient off of the opioid to allow adrenal function to recover and continue corticosteroid treatment until adrenal function recovers. Other opioids may be tried as some cases reported use of a different opioid without recurrence of adrenal insufficiency. The information available does not identify any particular opioids as being more likely to be associated with adrenal insufficiency.
Hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen may cause severe hypotension including orthostatic hypotension and syncope in ambulatory patients. There is increased risk in patients whose ability to maintain blood pressure has already been compromised by a reduced blood volume or concurrent administration of certain CNS depressant drugs (e.g., phenothiazines or general anesthetics) (see PRECAUTIONS: Drug Interactions). Monitor these patients for signs of hypotension after initiating or titrating the dosage of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen. In patients with circulatory shock, hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen may cause vasodilation that can further reduce cardiac output and blood pressure. Avoid the use of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen in patients with circulatory shock.
Risks of Use in Patients with Increased Intracranial Pressure, Brain Tumors, Head Injury, or Impaired Consciousness
In patients who may be susceptible to the intracranial effects of CO2 retention (e.g., those with evidence of increased intracranial pressure or brain tumors), hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen may reduce respiratory drive, and the resultant CO2 retention can further increase intracranial pressure. Monitor such patients for signs of sedation and respiratory depression, particularly when initiating therapy with hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen.
Opioids may also obscure the clinical course in a patient with a head injury. Avoid the use of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen in patients with impaired consciousness or coma.
Risks of Use in Patients with Gastrointestinal Conditions
Hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen is contraindicated in patients with known or suspected gastrointestinal obstruction, including paralytic ileus.
The hydrocodone in hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen may cause spasm of the sphincter of Oddi. Opioids may cause increases in serum amylase. Monitor patients with biliary tract disease, including acute pancreatitis, for worsening symptoms.
Increased Risk of Seizures in Patients with Seizure Disorders
The hydrocodone in hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen may increase the frequency of seizures in patients with seizure disorders, and may increase the risk of seizures occurring in other clinical settings associated with seizures. Monitor patients with a history of seizure disorders for worsened seizure control during hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen therapy.
Do not abruptly discontinue hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen in a patient physically dependent on opioids. When discontinuing hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen in a physically dependent patient, gradually taper the dosage. Rapid tapering of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen in a patient physically dependent on opioids may lead to a withdrawal syndrome and return of pain (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE).
Additionally, avoid the use of mixed agonist/antagonist (e.g., pentazocine, nalbuphine, and butorphanol) or partial agonist (e.g., buprenorphine) analgesics in patients who are receiving a full opioid agonist analgesic, including hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen. In these patients, mixed agonist/antagonist and partial agonist analgesics may reduce the analgesic effect and/or precipitate withdrawal symptoms (see PRECAUTIONS: Drug Interactions).
Risks of Driving and Operating Machinery
Hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen may impair the mental or physical abilities needed to perform potentially hazardous activities such as driving a car or operating machinery. Warn patients not to drive or operate dangerous machinery unless they are tolerant to the effects of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen and know how they will react to the medication (see PRECAUTIONS: Information for Patients).
Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events
Clinical trials of several COX-2 selective and nonselective NSAIDs of up to three years duration have shown an increased risk of serious cardiovascular (CV) thrombotic events, including myocardial infarction (MI), and stroke, which can be fatal. Based on available data, it is unclear that the risk for CV thrombotic events is similar for all NSAIDs. The relative increase in serious CV thrombotic events over baseline conferred by NSAID use appears to be similar in those with and without known CV disease or risk factors for CV disease. However, patients with known CV disease or risk factors had a higher absolute incidence of excess serious CV thrombotic events, due to their increased baseline rate. Some observational studies found that this increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events began as early as the first weeks of treatment. The increase in CV thrombotic risk has been observed most consistently at higher doses.
To minimize the potential risk for an adverse CV event in NSAID-treated patients, use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration possible. Physicians and patients should remain alert for the development of such events, throughout the entire treatment course, even in the absence of previous CV symptoms. Patients should be informed about the symptoms of serious CV events and the steps to take if they occur.
There is no consistent evidence that concurrent use of aspirin mitigates the increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events associated with NSAID use. The concurrent use of aspirin and an NSAID, such as ibuprofen, increases the risk of serious gastrointestinal (GI) events (see WARNINGS: Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, and Perforation).
Status Post Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Surgery
Two large, controlled clinical trials of a COX-2 selective NSAID for the treatment of pain in the first 10 to 14 days following CABG surgery found an increased incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke. NSAIDs are contraindicated in the setting of CABG (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).
Observational studies conducted in the Danish National Registry have demonstrated that patients treated with NSAIDs in the post-MI period were at increased risk of reinfarction, CV-related death, and all-cause mortality beginning in the first week of treatment. In this same cohort, the incidence of death in the first year post-MI was 20 per 100 person years in NSAID-treated patients compared to 12 per 100 person years in non-NSAID exposed patients. Although the absolute rate of death declined somewhat after the first year post-MI, the increased relative risk of death in NSAID users persisted over at least the next four years of follow-up.
Avoid the use of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen in patients with a recent MI unless the benefits are expected to outweigh the risk of recurrent CV thrombotic events. If hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen is used in patients with a recent MI, monitor patients for signs of cardiac ischemia.
Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, and Perforation
NSAIDs, including ibuprofen, cause serious gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events including inflammation, bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, or large intestine, which can be fatal. These serious adverse events can occur at any time, with or without warning symptoms, in patients treated with hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen. Only one in five patients who develop a serious upper GI adverse event on NSAID therapy is symptomatic. Upper GI ulcers, gross bleeding, or perforation caused by NSAIDs occurred in approximately 1% of patients treated for 3 to 6 months, and in about 2% to 4% of patients treated for one year. However, even short-term NSAID therapy is not without risk.
Risk Factors for GI Bleeding, Ulceration, and Perforation
Patients with a prior history of peptic ulcer disease and/or gastrointestinal bleeding who used NSAIDs had a greater than 10-fold increased risk for developing a GI bleed compared to patients without these risk factors. Other factors that increase the risk for GI bleeding in patients treated with NSAIDs include longer duration of NSAID therapy; concomitant use of oral corticosteroids, aspirin, anticoagulants, or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs); smoking; use of alcohol; older age; and poor general health status. Most postmarketing reports of fatal GI events occurred in elderly or debilitated patients. Additionally, patients with advanced liver disease and/or coagulopathy are at increased risk for GI bleeding.
Strategies to Minimize the GI Risks in NSAID-treated patients:
- Use the lowest effective dosage for the shortest possible duration.
- Avoid administration of more than one NSAID at a time.
- Avoid use in patients at higher risk unless benefits are expected to outweigh the increased risk of bleeding. For high risk patients, as well as those with active GI bleeding, consider alternate therapies other than NSAIDs.
- Remain alert for signs and symptoms of GI ulceration and bleeding during NSAID therapy.
- If a serious GI adverse event is suspected, promptly initiate evaluation and treatment, and discontinue hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen until a serious GI adverse event is ruled out.
- In the setting of concomitant use of low-dose aspirin for cardiac prophylaxis, monitor patients more closely for evidence of GI bleeding (see PRECAUTIONS: Drug Interactions).
Elevations of ALT or AST (three or more times the upper limit of normal [ULN]) have been reported in approximately 1% of NSAID-treated patients in clinical trials with NSAIDS. In addition, rare, sometimes fatal, cases of severe hepatic injury, including fulminant hepatitis, liver necrosis, and hepatic failure have been reported.
Elevations of ALT or AST (less than three times ULN) may occur in up to 15% of patients taking NSAIDs including ibuprofen.
Inform patients of the warning signs and symptoms of hepatotoxicity (e.g., nausea, fatigue, lethargy, diarrhea, pruritus, jaundice, right upper quadrant tenderness, and “flulike” symptoms). If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver disease develop, or if systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash, etc.), discontinue hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen immediately, and perform a clinical evaluation of the patient.
NSAID-containing products, including hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen, can lead to new onset or worsening of pre-existing hypertension, either of which may contribute to the increased incidence of CV events. Patients taking angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, thiazide diuretics, or loop diuretics may have impaired response to these therapies when taking NSAIDs (see PRECAUTIONS: Drug Interactions).
Monitor blood pressure (BP) during the initiation of NSAID treatment and throughout the course of therapy.
Heart Failure and Edema
The Coxib and Traditional NSAID Trialists’ Collaboration meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials demonstrated an approximately two-fold increase in hospitalizations for heart failure in COX-2 selective-treated patients and nonselective NSAID-treated patients compared to placebo-treated patients. In a Danish National Registry study of patients with heart failure, NSAID use increased the risk of MI, hospitalization for heart failure, and death.
Additionally, fluid retention and edema have been observed in some patients treated with NSAIDs. Use of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen may blunt the CV effects of several therapeutic agents used to treat these medical conditions (e.g., diuretics, ACE inhibitors, or angiotensin receptor blockers [ARBs]) (see PRECAUTIONS: Drug Interactions).
Avoid the use of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen in patients with severe heart failure unless the benefits are expected to outweigh the risk of worsening heart failure. If hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen is used in patients with severe heart failure, monitor patients for signs of worsening heart failure.
Renal Toxicity and Hyperkalemia
Long-term administration of NSAIDs has resulted in renal papillary necrosis and other renal injury. Renal toxicity has also been seen in patients in whom renal prostaglandins have a compensatory role in the maintenance of renal perfusion. In these patients, administration of an NSAID may cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation and, secondarily, in renal blood flow, which may precipitate overt renal decompensation. Patients at greatest risk of this reaction are those with impaired renal function, dehydration, hypovolemia, heart failure, liver dysfunction, those taking diuretics and ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and the elderly. Discontinuation of NSAID therapy was usually followed by recovery to the pretreatment state.
No information is available from controlled clinical studies regarding the use of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen in patients with advanced renal disease. The renal effects of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen may hasten the progression of renal dysfunction in patients with pre-existing renal disease.
Correct volume status in dehydrated or hypovolemic patients prior to initiating hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen. Monitor renal function in patients with renal or hepatic impairment, heart failure, dehydration, or hypovolemia during use of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen (see PRECAUTIONS: Drug Interactions). Avoid the use of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen in patients with advanced renal disease unless the benefits are expected to outweigh the risk of worsening renal function. If hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen is used in patients with advanced renal disease, monitor patients for signs of worsening renal function.
Increases in serum potassium concentration, including hyperkalemia, have been reported with use of NSAIDs, even in some patients without renal impairment. In patients with normal renal function, those effects have been attributed to a hyporeninemic-hypoaldosteronism state.
Ibuprofen has been associated with anaphylactic reactions in patients with and without known hypersensitivity to ibuprofen and in patients with aspirin-sensitive asthma (see CONTRAINDICATIONS,WARNINGS: Exacerbation of Asthma Related to Aspirin Sensitivity).
Seek emergency help if an anaphylactic reaction occurs.
Exacerbation of Asthma Related to Aspirin Sensitivity
A subpopulation of patients with asthma may have aspirin-sensitive asthma which may include chronic rhinosinusitis complicated by nasal polyps; severe, potentially fatal bronchospasm; and/or intolerance to aspirin and other NSAIDs. Because cross-reactivity between aspirin and other NSAIDs has been reported in such aspirin-sensitive patients, hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen is contraindicated in patients with this form of aspirin sensitivity (see CONTRAINDICATIONS). When hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen is used in patients with pre-existing asthma (without known aspirin sensitivity), monitor patients for changes in the signs and symptoms of asthma.
Serious Skin Reactions
NSAIDs, including ibuprofen, can cause serious skin adverse events such as exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), which can be fatal. These serious events may occur without warning. Inform patients about the signs and symptoms of serious skin reactions, and to discontinue the use of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen at the first appearance of skin rash or any other sign of hypersensitivity. Hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen is contraindicated in patients with previous serious skin reactions to NSAIDs (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).
Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS)
Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) has been reported in patients taking NSAIDs such as hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen. Some of these events have been fatal or life-threatening. DRESS typically, although not exclusively, presents with fever, rash, lymphadenopathy, and/or facial swelling. Other clinical manifestations may include hepatitis, nephritis, hematological abnormalities, myocarditis, or myositis. Sometimes symptoms of DRESS may resemble an acute viral infection. Eosinophilia is often present. Because this disorder is variable in its presentation, other organ systems not noted here may be involved. It is important to note that early manifestations of hypersensitivity, such as fever or lymphadenopathy, may be present even though rash is not evident. If such signs or symptoms are present, discontinue hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen and evaluate the patient immediately.
Premature Closure of Fetal Ductus Arteriosus:
Avoid use of NSAIDs, including hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen, in pregnant women at about 30 weeks gestation and later. NSAIDs including hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen, increase the risk of premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus at approximately this gestational age.
Oligohydramnios/Neonatal Renal Impairment:
Use of NSAIDs, including hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen, at about 20 weeks gestation or later in pregnancy may cause fetal renal dysfunction leading to oligohydramnios and, in some cases, neonatal renal impairment. These adverse outcomes are seen, on average, after days to weeks of treatment, although oligohydramnios has been infrequently reported as soon as 48 hours after NSAID initiation. Oligohydramnios is often, but not always, reversible with treatment discontinuation. Complications of prolonged oligohydramnios may, for example, include limb contractures and delayed lung maturation. In some post-marketing cases of impaired neonatal renal function, invasive procedures such as exchange transfusion or dialysis were required.
If NSAID treatment is necessary between about 20 weeks and 30 weeks gestation, limit hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen use to the lowest effective dose and shortest duration possible. Consider ultrasound monitoring of amniotic fluid if hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen treatment extends beyond 48 hours. Discontinue hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen if oligohydramnios occurs and follow up according to clinical practice (see PRECAUTIONS: Pregnancy).
Anemia has occurred in NSAID-treated patients. This may be due to occult or gross blood loss, fluid retention, or an incompletely described effect on erythropoiesis. If a patient treated with hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen has any signs or symptoms of anemia, monitor hemoglobin or hematocrit.
NSAID-containing products, including hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen, may increase the risk of bleeding events. Co-morbid conditions such as coagulation disorders, concomitant use of warfarin, other anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents (e.g., aspirin), serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) may increase this risk. Monitor these patients for signs of bleeding (see PRECAUTIONS: Drug Interactions).
Aseptic meningitis with fever and coma has been observed on rare occasions in patients on ibuprofen therapy as found in hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen. Although it is probably more likely to occur in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and related connective tissue diseases, it has been reported in patients who do not have an underlying chronic disease. If signs or symptoms of meningitis develop in a patient on hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen, the possibility of its being related to ibuprofen should be considered.
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