Because serious GI bleeding, hepatotoxicity, and renal injury can occur without warning symptoms or signs, consider monitoring patients with a CBC and a chemistry profile periodically (see WARNINGS: Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, and Perforation, Renal Toxicity and Hyperkalemia, Hepatotoxicity).
Inhibitors of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6
The concomitant use of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen and CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as macrolide antibiotics (e.g., erythromycin), azole-antifungal agents (e.g. ketoconazole), protease inhibitors (e.g., ritonavir), can increase the plasma concentration of hydrocodone, resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects. These effects could be more pronounced with concomitant use of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen and CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibitors, particularly when an inhibitor is added after a stable dose of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen is achieved (see WARNINGS: Risks of Concomitant Use or Discontinuation of Cytochrome P450 3A4 Inhibitors and Inducers).
After stopping a CYP3A4 inhibitor, as the effects of the inhibitor decline, the hydrocodone plasma concentration will decrease (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Pharmacokinetics), resulting in decreased opioid efficacy or a withdrawal syndrome in patients who had developed physical dependence to hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen.
If concomitant use is necessary, consider dosage reduction of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen until stable drug effects are achieved. Monitor patients for respiratory depression and sedation at frequent intervals. If a CYP3A4 inhibitor is discontinued, consider a dosage increase of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen until stable drug effects are achieved. Monitor for signs of opioid withdrawal.
The concomitant use of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen and CYP3A4 inducers, such as rifampin, carbamazepine, and phenytoin, can decrease the plasma concentration of hydrocodone (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Pharmacokinetics), resulting in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence to hydrocodone (see WARNINGS: Withdrawal).
After stopping a CYP3A4 inducer, as the effects of the inducer decline, the hydrocodone plasma concentration will increase (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Pharmacokinetics), which could increase or prolong both the therapeutic effects and adverse reactions, and may cause serious respiratory depression.
If concomitant use is necessary, consider a dosage increase of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen until stable drug effects are achieved. Monitor for signs of opioid withdrawal. If a CYP3A4 inducer is discontinued, consider hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen dosage reduction and monitor for signs of respiratory depression.
Benzodiazepines and Other Central Nervous System (CNS) Depressants
Due to additive pharmacologic effect, the concomitant use of benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants such as benzodiazepines and other sedatives/hypnotics, anxiolytics, tranquilizers, muscle relaxants, general anesthetics, antipsychotics, and other opioids, including alcohol, increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death.
Reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required. Follow patients closely for signs of respiratory depression and sedation. If concomitant use is warranted, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose (see WARNINGS).
The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
If concomitant use is warranted, carefully observe the patient, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen if serotonin syndrome is suspected.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), triptans, 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, drugs that affect the serotonin neurotransmitter system (e.g., mirtazapine, trazodone, tramadol), certain muscle relaxants (i.e. cyclobenzaprine, metaxalone), monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors (those intended to treat psychiatric disorders and also others, such as linezolid and intravenous methylene blue).
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)
MAOI interactions with opioids may manifest as serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity (e.g., respiratory depression, coma).
If urgent use of an opioid is necessary with MAOIs such as phenelzine, tranylcypromine, linezolid, use test doses and frequent titration of small doses to treat pain while closely monitoring blood pressure and signs and symptoms of CNS and respiratory depression.
The use of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen is not recommended for patients taking MAOIs or within 14 days of stopping such treatment.
Mixed Agonist/Antagonist and Partial Agonist Opioid Analgesics
Agonist/antagonist analgesics such as pentazocine, nalbuphine, butorphanol and buprenorphine may reduce the analgesic effect of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen and/or precipitate withdrawal symptoms in these patients.
Avoid concomitant use of these drugs.
Hydrocodone, as well as other opioid analgesics, may enhance the neuromuscular blocking action of skeletal muscle relaxants and produce an increased degree of respiratory depression.
If concomitant use is warranted, monitor patients for signs of respiratory depression that may be greater than otherwise expected and decrease the dosage of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen and/or the muscle relaxant as necessary. Due to the risk of respiratory depression with concomitant use of skeletal muscle relaxants and opioids, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose (see WARNINGS).
The concomitant use of anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.
Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen is used concomitantly with anticholinergic drugs.
Drugs That Interfere With Hemostasis
Ibuprofen and anticoagulants such as warfarin have a synergistic effect on bleeding. The concomitant use of ibuprofen and anticoagulants have an increased risk of serious bleeding compared to the use of either drug alone.
Serotonin release by platelets plays an important role in hemostasis. Case-control and cohort epidemiological studies showed that concomitant use of drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and an NSAID may potentiate the risk of bleeding more than an NSAID alone.
Monitor patients with concomitant use of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen with anticoagulants (e.g., warfarin), antiplatelet agents (e.g., aspirin), SSRIs, and SNRIs for signs of bleeding (see WARNINGS: Hematologic Toxicity).
Pharmacodynamic studies have demonstrated interference with the antiplatelet activity of aspirin when ibuprofen 400 mg, given three times daily, is administered with entericcoated low-dose aspirin. The interaction exists even following a once-daily regimen of ibuprofen 400 mg, particularly when ibuprofen is dosed prior to aspirin. The interaction is alleviated if immediate-release low-dose aspirin is dosed at least 2 hours prior to a once-daily regimen of ibuprofen; however, this finding cannot be extended to enteric-coated low-dose aspirin (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Pharmacodynamics).
Because there may be an increased risk of cardiovascular events due to the interference of ibuprofen with the antiplatelet effect of aspirin, for patients taking low-dose aspirin for cardioprotection who require analgesics, consider use of an NSAID that does not interfere with the antiplatelet effect of aspirin, or non-NSAID analgesics, where appropriate.
Controlled clinical studies showed that the concomitant use of NSAIDs and analgesic doses of aspirin does not produce any greater therapeutic effect than the use of NSAIDs alone. In a clinical study, the concomitant use of an NSAID and aspirin was associated with a significantly increased incidence of GI adverse reactions as compared to use of the NSAID alone (see WARNINGS: Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, and Perforation).
Concomitant use of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen and analgesic doses of aspirin is not generally recommended because of the increased risk of bleeding (see WARNINGS: Hematologic Toxicity).
ACE-Inhibitors, Angiotensin Receptor Blockers, and Beta-blockers
NSAIDs may diminish the antihypertensive effect of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), or beta-blockers (including propranolol).
During concomitant use of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen and ACE-inhibitors, ARBs, or beta-blockers, monitor blood pressure to ensure that the desired blood pressure is obtained. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or have renal impairment, co-administration of an NSAID with ACE inhibitors or ARBs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure. Monitor for signs of worsening renal function (see WARNINGS: Renal Toxicity and Hyperkalemia). These effects are usually reversible.
When these drugs are administered concomitantly, patients should be adequately hydrated. Assess renal function at the beginning of the concomitant treatment and periodically thereafter.
Clinical studies, as well as post-marketing observations, showed that NSAIDs reduced the natriuretic effect of loop diuretics (e.g., furosemide) and thiazide diuretics in some patients. This effect has been attributed to the NSAID inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis.
During concomitant use of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen with diuretics, observe patients for signs of worsening renal function, in addition to assuring diuretic efficacy including antihypertensive effects (see WARNINGS: Renal Toxicity and Hyperkalemia).
The concomitant use of ibuprofen with digoxin has been reported to increase the serum concentration and prolong the half-life of digoxin.
During concomitant use of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen and digoxin, monitor serum digoxin levels.
NSAIDs have produced elevations in plasma lithium concentration and reductions in renal lithium clearance. The mean minimum lithium concentration increased 15%, and the renal clearance decreased by approximately 20%. This effect has been attributed to NSAID inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis.
During concomitant use of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen and lithium, monitor patients for signs of lithium toxicity.
Concomitant use of NSAIDs and methotrexate may increase the risk for methotrexate toxicity (e.g., neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, renal dysfunction).
During concomitant use of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen and methotrexate, monitor patients for methotrexate toxicity.
Concomitant use of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen and cyclosporine may increase cyclosporine’s nephrotoxicity.
During concomitant use of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen and cyclosporine, monitor patients for signs of worsening renal function.
NSAIDs and Salicylates
Concomitant use of ibuprofen with other NSAIDs or salicylates (e.g., diflunisal, salsalate) increases the risk of GI toxicity, with little or no increase in efficacy (see WARNINGS: Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, and Perforation).
The concomitant use of ibuprofen with other NSAIDs or salicylates is not recommended.
Concomitant use of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen and pemetrexed may increase the risk of pemetrexed-associated myelosuppression, renal, and GI toxicity (see the pemetrexed prescribing information).
During concomitant use of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen and pemetrexed, in patients with renal impairment whose creatinine clearance ranges from 45 to 79 mL/min, monitor for myelosuppression, renal and GI toxicity.
NSAIDs with short elimination half-lives (e.g., diclofenac, indomethacin) should be avoided for a period of two days before, the day of, and two days following administration of pemetrexed.
In the absence of data regarding potential interaction between pemetrexed and NSAIDs with longer half-lives (e.g., meloxicam, nabumetone), patients taking these NSAIDs should interrupt dosing for at least five days before, the day of, and two days following pemetrexed administration.
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