Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Ibuprofen (Page 7 of 11)
Hydrocodone is present in human milk. A published lactation study reports variable concentrations of hydrocodone and hydromorphone (an active metabolite) in breast milk with administration of immediate-release hydrocodone to nursing mothers in the early post-partum period. This lactation study did not assess breastfed infants for potential adverse drug reactions.
Limited published literature reports that, following oral administration, ibuprofen is present in human milk at relative infant doses of 0.06% to 0.6% of the maternal weight-adjusted daily dose.
Lactation studies have not been conducted with hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen, and no information is available on the effects of the drug on the breastfed infant or the effects of the drug on milk production.
The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen or from the underlying maternal condition.
Monitor infants exposed to hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen through breast milk for excess sedation and respiratory depression. Withdrawal symptoms can occur in breastfed infants when maternal administration of hydrocodone is stopped, or when breastfeeding is stopped.
The safety and effectiveness of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen in pediatric patients below the age of 16 have not been established.
In controlled clinical trials there was no difference in tolerability between patients < 65 years of age and those ≥ 65, apart from an increased tendency of the elderly to develop constipation. However, elderly patients are at greater risk for NSAID-associated serious cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and renal adverse reactions as well as possible increased risk of respiratory depression with opioids. In general, use caution when selecting a dosage for an elderly patient, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy (see WARNINGS: Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events, Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, and Perforation, Renal Toxicity and Hyperkalemia).
Respiratory depression is the chief risk for elderly patients treated with opioids, and has occurred after large initial doses were administered to patients who were not opioid-tolerant or when opioids were co-administered with other agents that depress respiration. Titrate the dosage of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen slowly in geriatric patients and monitor closely for signs of central nervous system and respiratory depression (see WARNINGS: Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression in Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Disease or in Elderly, Cachectic, or Debilitated Patients).
Both hydrocodone and ibuprofen are known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.
Patients with hepatic impairment may have higher hydrocodone plasma concentrations than those with normal function. In patients with severe hepatic impairment, use a low initial dose. Monitor these patients closely for adverse events such as respiratory depression, sedation, and hypotension.
Patients with renal impairment may have higher hydrocodone plasma concentrations than those with normal function. Use a low initial dose in patients with renal impairment and monitor closely for adverse events such as respiratory depression, sedation, and hypotension.
The following adverse reactions are described below and elsewhere in the labeling including the WARNINGS section.
- Addiction, Abuse, and Misuse
- Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression
- Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome
- Interactions with Cytochrome P450 3A4 Inhibitors and Inducers
- Interactions with Benzodiazepines or Other CNS Depressants
- Adrenal Insufficiency
- Severe Hypotension
- Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events
- Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, and Perforation
- Heart Failure and Edema
- Renal Toxicity and Hyperkalemia
- Anaphylactic Reactions
- Exacerbation of Asthma Related to Aspirin Sensitivity
- Serious Skin Reactions
- Premature Closure of Fetal Ductus Arteriosus
- Hematologic Toxicity
- Aseptic Meningitis
Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen was administered to approximately 300 pain patients in a safety study that employed dosages and a duration of treatment sufficient to encompass the recommended usage (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Adverse event rates generally increased with increasing daily dose. The event rates reported below are from approximately 150 patients who were in a group that received one tablet of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen an average of three to four times daily. The overall incidence rates of adverse experiences in the trials were fairly similar for this patient group and those who received the comparison treatment, acetaminophen 600 mg with codeine 60 mg.
The following lists adverse events that occurred with an incidence of 1% or greater in clinical trials of hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen, without regard to the causal relationship of the events to the drug. To distinguish different rates of occurrence in clinical studies, the adverse events are listed as follows:
name of adverse event = less than 3%
adverse events marked with an asterisk * = 3% to 9%
adverse event rates over 9% are in parentheses.
Body as a Whole
Abdominal pain*; Asthenia*; Fever; Flu syndrome; Headache (27%); Infection*; Pain.
Central Nervous System
Anxiety*; Confusion; Dizziness (14%); Hypertonia; Insomnia*; Nervousness*; Paresthesia; Somnolence (22%); Thinking abnormalities.
Anorexia; Constipation (22%); Diarrhea*; Dry mouth*; Dyspepsia (12%); Flatulence*; Gastritis; Melena; Mouth ulcers; Nausea (21%); Thirst; Vomiting*.
Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders
Dyspnea; Hiccups; Pharyngitis; Rhinitis.
Skin and Appendages
Incidence less than 1%
Body as a Whole
Arrhythmia; Hypotension; Tachycardia.
Central Nervous System
Agitation; Abnormal dreams; Decreased libido; Depression; Euphoria; Mood changes; Neuralgia; Slurred speech; Tremor, Vertigo.
Chalky stool; “Clenching teeth”; Dysphagia; Esophageal spasm; Esophagitis; Gastroenteritis; Glossitis; Liver enzyme elevation.
Metabolic and Nutritional
Asthma; Bronchitis; Hoarseness; Increased cough; Pulmonary congestion; Pneumonia; Shallow breathing; Sinusitis.
Skin and Appendages
Altered vision; Bad taste; Dry eyes.
Cystitis; Glycosuria; Impotence; Urinary incontinence; Urinary retention.
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of hydrocodone. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Serotonin syndrome: Cases of serotonin syndrome, a potentially life-threatening condition, have been reported during concomitant use of opioids with serotonergic drugs.
Adrenal insufficiency: Cases of adrenal insufficiency have been reported with opioid use, more often following greater than one month of use.
Anaphylaxis: Anaphylaxis has been reported with ingredients contained in hydrocodone bitartrate and ibuprofen.
Androgen deficiency: Cases of androgen deficiency have occurred with chronic use of opioids (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Pharmacodynamics).
To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Amneal Pharmaceuticals at 1-877-835-5472 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch .
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