IBU- ibuprofen tablet
RedPharm Drug, Inc.
Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause an increased risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic events, including myocardial infarction and stroke, which can be fatal. This risk may occur early in treatment and may increase with duration of use. (See WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS).
IBU tablets are contraindicated in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery (See CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS).
NSAIDS cause an increased risk of serious gastrointestinaladverse events including bleeding, ulceration, and perforationof the stomach or intestines, which can be fatal. These eventscan occur at any time during use and without warning symptoms.Elderly patients are at greater risk for serious gastrointestinalevents. (See WARNINGS).
IBU tablets contain the active ingredient ibuprofen, which is (±) -2 — (p — isobutylphenyl) propionic acid. Ibuprofen is a white powde rwith a melting point of 74-77° C and is very slightly soluble in water(<1 mg/mL) and readily soluble in organic solvents such as ethanol and acetone. The structural formula is represented below:
IBU, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), is availablein 400 mg, 600 mg, and 800 mg tablets for oral administration.Inactive ingredients: carnauba wax, colloidal silicon dioxide,croscarmellose sodium, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, microcrystallinecellulose, polydextrose, polyethylene glycol, polysorbate,titanium dioxide.
IBU tablets contain ibuprofen which possesses analgesic andantipyretic activities. Its mode of action, like that of other NSAIDs, isnot completely understood, but may be related to prostaglandin synthetaseinhibition.
In clinical studies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis andosteoarthritis, Ibuprofen tablets have been shown to be comparableto aspirin in controlling pain and inflammation and to be associatedwith a statistically significant reduction in the milder gastrointestinalside effects (see ADVERSE REACTIONS). Ibuprofen may be well toleratedin some patients who have had gastrointestinal side effectswith aspirin, but these patients when treated with IBU tablets shouldbe carefully followed for signs and symptoms of gastrointestinalulceration and bleeding. Although it is not definitely known whetheribuprofen causes less peptic ulceration than aspirin, in one studyinvolving 885 patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated for up to oneyear, there were no reports of gastric ulceration with ibuprofenwhereas frank ulceration was reported in 13 patients in the aspiringroup (statistically significant p<.001).
Gastroscopic studies at varying doses show an increased tendencytoward gastric irritation at higher doses. However, at comparabledoses, gastric irritation is approximately half that seen with aspirin.Studies using 51Cr-tagged red cells indicate that fecal blood lossassociated with Ibuprofen tablets in doses up to 2400 mg daily didnot exceed the normal range, and was significantly less than thatseen in aspirin-treated patients.
In clinical studies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, Ibuprofenhas been shown to be comparable to indomethacin in controlling thesigns and symptoms of disease activity and to be associated with astatistically significant reduction of the milder gastrointestinal (see ADVERSE REACTIONS) and CNS side effects.
Ibuprofen may be used in combination with gold salts and/or corticosteroids.
Controlled studies have demonstrated that Ibuprofen is a more effective analgesic than propoxyphene for the relief of episiotomy pain, pain following dental extraction procedures, and for the relief ofthe symptoms of primary dysmenorrhea.
In patients with primary dysmenorrhea, Ibuprofen has been shown to reduce elevated levels of prostaglandin activity in the menstrualfluid and to reduce resting and active intrauterine pressure, as well asthe frequency of uterine contractions. The probable mechanism ofaction is to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis rather than simply to provide analgesia.
The ibuprofen in IBU tablets is rapidly absorbed. Peak serum ibuprofen levels are generally attained one to two hours after administration.With single doses up to 800 mg, a linear relationship exists between amount of drug administered and the integrated area underthe serum drug concentration vs time curve. Above 800 mg, however,the area under the curve increases less than proportional to increases in dose. There is no evidence of drug accumulation or enzyme induction.
The administration of Ibuprofen tablets either under fasting conditions or immediately before meals yields quite similar serum ibuprofen concentration-time profiles. When Ibuprofen is administered immediately after a meal, there is a reduction in the rate of absorption but no appreciable decrease in the extent of absorption.The bioavailability of the drug is minimally altered by the presence of food.
A bioavailability study has shown that there was no interference with the absorption of ibuprofen when given in conjunction with anantacid containing both aluminum hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide.
Ibuprofen is rapidly metabolized and eliminated in the urine. The excretion of ibuprofen is virtually complete 24 hours after the last dose. The serum half-life is 1.8 to 2.0 hours.
Studies have shown that following ingestion of the drug, 45% to79% of the dose was recovered in the urine within 24 hours as metabolite A (25%), (+)-2-[p-(2hydroxymethyl-propyl) phenyl] propionic acid and metabolite B (37%), (+)-2-[p-(2carboxypropyl)phenyl]propionic acid; the percentages of free and conjugated ibuprofen were approximately 1% and 14%, respectively.
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of Ibuprofentablets and other treatment options before deciding to use Ibuprofen.Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent withindividual patient treatment goals (see WARNINGS).
IBU tablets are indicated for relief of the signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.
IBU tablets are indicated for relief of mild to moderate pain.
IBU tablets are also indicated for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea.
Controlled clinical trials to establish the safety and effectiveness of IBU tablets in children have not been conducted.
IBU tablets are contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivityto ibuprofen.
IBU tablets should not be given to patients who have experienced asthma, urticaria, or allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin orother NSAIDs. Severe, rarely fatal, anaphylactic-like reactions to NSAIDs have been reported in such patients (see WARNINGS, ANAPHYLACTOID REACTIONS, and PRECAUTIONS, PREEXISTING ASTHMA).
IBU tablets are contraindicated in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery(see WARNINGS).
Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events
Clinical trials of several COX-2 selective and nonselective NSAIDs of up to three years duration have shown an increased risk of serious cardiovascular (CV) thrombotic events, including myocardial infarction (MI), and stroke, which can be fatal. Based on available data, it is unclear that the risk for CV thrombotic events is similar for all NSAIDs.The relative increase in serious CV thrombotic events over baseline conferred by NSAID use appears to be similar in those with and without known CV disease or risk factors for CV disease. However, patients with known CV disease or risk factors had a higher absolute incidence of excess serious CV thrombotic events, due to their increased baseline rate. Some observational studies found that this increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events began as early as the first weeks of treatment. The increase in CV thrombotic risk has been observed most consistently at higher doses.
To minimize the potential risk for an adverse CV event in NSAID-treated patients, use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration possible. Physicians and patients should remain alert for the development of such events, throughout the entire treatment course, even in the absence of previous CV symptoms. Patients should be informed about the symptoms of serious CV events and the steps to take if they occur.
There is no consistent evidence that concurrent use of aspirin mitigates the increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events associated with NSAID use. The concurrent use of aspirin and an NSAID, such as ibuprofen, increases the risk of serious gastrointestinal (GI) events (see WARNINGS).
Status Post Coronary Bypass Graft (CABG) Surgery Two large, controlled clinical trials of a COX-2 selective NSAID for the treatment of pain in the first 10-14 days following CABG surgery found an increased incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke. NSAIDs are contraindicated in the setting of CABG (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).
Post-MI Patients Observational studies conducted in the Danish National Registry have demonstrated that patients treated with NSAIDs in the post-MI period were at increased risk of reinfarction, CV-related death, and all-cause mortality beginning in the first week of treatment. In this same cohort, the incidence of death in the first year post MI was 20 per 100 person years in NSAID-treated patients compared to 12 per 100 person years in non-NSAID exposed patients. Although the absolute rate of death declined somewhat after the first year post-MI, the increased relative risk of death in NSAID users persisted over at least the next four years to follow-up.
Avoid the use of Ibuprofen in patients with a recent MI unless the benefits are expected to outweigh the risk of recurrent CV thrombotic events. If Ibuprofen is used in patients with a recent MI, monitor patients for signs of cardiac ischemia.
NSAIDs including IBU tablets, can lead to onset of new hypertensionor worsening of preexisting hypertension, either of which maycontribute to the increased incidence of CV events. Patients takingthiazides or loop diuretics may have impaired response to these therapieswhen taking NSAIDs. NSAIDs, including IBU tablets, should beused with caution in patients with hypertension. Blood pressure (BP)should be monitored closely during the initiation of NSAID treatmentand throughout the course of therapy.
Heart Failure and Edema
The Coxib and traditional NSAID Trialists’ Collaboration meta-analysis of randomized controlled trails demonstrated an approximately two-fold increase in hospitalizations for heart failure in COX-2 selective-treated patients and nonselective NSAID-treated patients compared to placebo-treated patients. In a Danish National Registry study of patients with heart failure, NSAID use increased the risk of MI, hospitalization for heart failure, and death. Additionally, fluid retention and edema have been observed in some patients treated with NSAIDs. Use of ibuprofen may blunt the CV effects of several therapeutic agents used to treat these medical conditions [e.g., diuretics, ACE inhibitors, or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs)] [See DRUG INTERACTIONS]. Avoid the use of IBU tablets in patients with severe heart failure unless the benefits are expected to outweigh the risk of worsening heart failure. If IBU tablets is used in patients with severe heart failure, monitor patients for signs of worsening heart failure.
Gastrointestinal Effects — Risk of Ulceration, Bleeding, and Perforation
NSAIDs, including IBU tablets, can cause serious gastrointestinal(GI) adverse events including inflammation, bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach, small intestine, or large intestine, which can be fatal. These serious adverse events can occur at any time, with or without warning symptoms, in patients treated with NSAIDs. Only one in five patients, who develop a serious upper GI adverse event on NSAID therapy, is symptomatic. Upper GI ulcers, gross bleeding, or perforation caused by NSAIDs occur in approximately 1% of patientstreated for 3-6 months, and in about 2-4% of patients treated for oneyear. These trends continue with longer duration of use, increasing the likelihood of developing a serious GI event at some time during the course of therapy. However, even short-term therapy is not without risk. NSAIDs should be prescribed with extreme caution in thosewith a prior history of ulcer disease or gastrointestinal bleeding.Patients with a prior history of peptic ulcer disease and/or gastrointestinal bleeding who use NSAIDs have a greater than 10-fold increased risk for developing a GI bleed compared to patients treatedwith neither of these risk factors. Other factors that increase the riskof GI bleeding in patients treated with NSAIDs include concomitant use of oral corticosteroids or anticoagulants, longer duration of NSAID therapy, smoking, use of alcohol, older age, and poor general health status. Most spontaneous reports of fatal GI events are in elderly or debilitated patients and therefore, special care should be taken in treating this population. To minimize the potential risk for an adverse GI event in patients treated with an NSAID, the lowest effective dose should be used for the shortest possible duration. Patients and physicians should remain alert for signs and symptoms of GIulcerations and bleeding during NSAID therapy and promptly initiate additional evaluation and treatment if a serious GI event is suspected.This should include discontinuation of the NSAID until a serious GI adverse event is ruled out. For high-risk patients, alternate therapies that do not involve NSAIDs should be considered.
Long-term administration of NSAIDs has resulted in renal papillary necrosis and other renal injury. Renal toxicity has also been seen in patients in whom renal prostaglandins have a compensatory role in the maintenance of renal perfusion. In these patients, administration of a NSAID may cause a dose dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation and, secondarily, in renal blood flow, which may precipitate overt renal decompensation. Patients at greatest riskof this reaction are those with impaired renal function, heart failure,liver dysfunction, those taking diuretics and ACE inhibitors, and the elderly. Discontinuation of NSAID therapy is usually followed by recovery to the pretreatment state.
Advanced Renal Disease
No information is available from controlled clinical studies regarding the use of Ibuprofen tablets in patients with advanced renal disease.Therefore, treatment with IBU tablets is not recommended in these patients with advanced renal disease. If IBU tablet therapy must be initiated, close monitoring of the patients renal function is advisable.
As with other NSAIDs, anaphylactoid reactions may occur inpatients without known prior exposure to IBU tablets. IBU tablets should not be given to patients with the aspirin triad. This symptom complex typically occurs in asthmatic patients who experience rhinitis with or without nasal polyps, or who exhibit severe, potentially fatal bronchospasm after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and PRECAUTIONS, PREEXISTING ASTHMA).Emergency help should be sought in cases where an anaphylactoidreaction occurs.
NSAIDs, including IBU tablets, can cause serious skin adverse events such as exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome(SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), which can be fatal.These serious events may occur without warning. Patients should be informed about the signs and symptoms of serious skin manifestations and use of the drug should be discontinued at the first appearance of skin rash or any other sign of hypersensitivity.
In late pregnancy, as with other NSAIDs, IBU tablets should beavoided because it may cause premature closure of the ductus arteriosus.
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