Ibuprofen (Page 3 of 4)

Laboratory Tests

Because serious GI tract ulcerations and bleeding can occur without warning symptoms, physicians should monitor for signs or symptoms of GI bleeding. Patients on long-term treatment with NSAIDs should have their CBC and chemistry profile checked periodically. If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver or renal disease develop, systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash etc.), or abnormal liver tests persist or worsen, ibuprofen tablets should be discontinued.

Drug Interactions

ACE-inhibitors

Reports suggest that NSAIDs may diminish the antihypertensive effect of ACE-inhibitors. This interaction should be given consideration in patients taking NSAIDs concomitantly with ACE-inhibitors.

Aspirin

When ibuprofen tablets are administered with aspirin, its protein binding is reduced, although the clearance of free ibuprofen tablets is not altered. The clinical significance of this interaction is not known; however, as with other NSAIDs, concomitant administration of ibuprofen and aspirin is not generally recommended because of the potential for increased adverse effects.

Diuretics

Clinical studies, as well as post marketing observations, have shown that ibuprofen tablets can reduce the natriuretic effect-of furosemide and thiazides in some patients. This response has been attributed to inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis. During concomitant therapy with NSAIDs, the patient should be observed closely for signs of renal failure (see WARNINGS, Renal Effects), as well as to assure diuretic efficacy.

Lithium

Ibuprofen produced an elevation of plasma lithium levels and a reduction in renal lithium clearance in a study of eleven normal volunteers. The mean minimum lithium concentration increased 15% and the renal clearance of lithium was decreased by 19% during this period of concomitant drug administration. This effect has been attributed to inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis by ibuprofen. Thus, when ibuprofen and lithium are administered concurrently, subjects should be observed carefully for signs of lithium toxicity. (Read circulars for lithium preparation before use of such concurrent therapy).

Methotrexate

NSAIDs have been reported to competitively inhibit methotrexate accumulation in rabbit kidney slices. This may indicate that they could enhance the toxicity of methotrexate. Caution should be used when NSAIDs are administered concomitantly with methotrexate.

Warfarin-type anticoagulants

Several short-term controlled studies failed to show that ibuprofen tablets significantly affected prothrombin times or a variety of other clotting factors when administered to individuals on coumarin-type anticoagulants. However, because bleeding has been reported when ibuprofen tablets and other NSAIDs have been administered to patients on coumarin-type anticoagulants, the physician should be cautious when administering ibuprofen tablets to patients on anticoagulants. The effects of warfarin and NSAIDs on GI bleeding are synergistic, such that the users of both drugs together have a risk of serious GI bleeding higher than users of either drug alone.

H-2 Antagonists

In studies with human volunteers, co-administration of cimetidine or ranitidine with ibuprofen had no substantive effect on ibuprofen serum concentrations.

Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects

Reproductive studies conducted in rats and rabbits have not demonstrated evidence of developmental abnormalities. However, animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Ibuprofen tablets should be used in pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Nonteratogenic Effects

Because of the known effects of NSAIDs on the fetal cardiovascular system (closure of ductus arteriosus), use during late pregnancy should be avoided.

Labor And Delivery

In rat studies with NSAIDs, as with other drugs known to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis, an increased incidence of dystocia, delayed parturition, and decreased pup survival occurred. The effects of ibuprofen tablets on labor and delivery in pregnant women are unknown.

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human-milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from ibuprofen tablets, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness of ibuprofen tablets in pediatric patients have not been established.

Geriatric Use

As with any NSAIDs, caution should be exercised in treating the elderly (65 years and older).

ADVERSE REACTIONS

The most frequent type of adverse reaction occurring with ibuprofen tablets is gastrointestinal . In controlled clinical trials the percentage of patients reporting one or more gastrointestinal complaints ranged from 4%to 16%.

In controlled studies when ibuprofen tablets were compared to aspirin and indomethacin in equally effective doses, the overall incidence of gastrointestinal complaints was about half that seen in either the aspirin- or indomethacin-treated patients.

Adverse reactions observed during controlled clinical trials at an incidence greater than 1%are listed in the table. Those reactions listed in Column one encompass observations in approximately 3,000 patients. More than 500 of these patients were treated for periods of at least 54 weeks.

Still other reactions occurring less frequently than 1 in 100 were reported in controlled clinical trials and from marketing experience. These reactions have been divided into two categories: Column two of the table lists reactions with therapy with ibuprofen tablets where the probability of a causal relationship exists: for the reactions in Column three, a causal relationship with ibuprofen tablets has not been established.

Reported side effects were higher at doses of 3200 mg/day than at doses of 2400 mg or less per day in clinical trials of patients with rheumatoid arthritis . The increases in incidence were slight and still within the ranges reported in the table.

Incidence Greater than 1%(but less than 3%) probable casual Relationship Precise Incidence Unknown (but less than 1%) probable Casual Relationship* Precise Incidence Unknown (but less than 1%) Casual Relationship Unknown*
GASTROINTESTINAL Nausea†, epigastric paint†, heartburn, diarrhea, abdominal distress, nausea and vomiting, indigestion, constipation, abdominal cramps or Pain, fullness of GI tract (bloating and flatulence) Gastric or duodenal ulcer with bleeding and/or perforation, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, melena, gastritis, hepatitis, jaundice, abnormal liver function tests; pancreatis
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Dizziness†, headache, nervousness Depression, insomnia, confusion, emotional liability, somnolence, aseptic meningitis with fever and coma (see PRECAUTIONS) Paresthesias, hallucinations, dream abnormalities, pseudo-tumor cerebri

DERMATOLOGIC Rash† (including maculopapular type), pruritis

Vesiculobullous eruptions, urticaria, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, alopecia

Toxic epidermal necrolysis, photoallergic skin reactions

SPECIAL SENSES Tinnitus Hearing loss, amblyopia (blurred and/or diminished vision, scotomata and/or changes in color vision) (see PRECAUTIONS) Conjuctivitis, diplopia, optic neuritis, cataracts
HEMATOLOGIC Neutropenia, agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, hemolytic anemia (sometimes Coombs positive), thrombocytopenia with or without purpura, eosinophilia, decreases in hemoglobin and hematocrit (see PRECAUTIONS) Bleeding episodes (eg epistaxis, menorrhagia)
METABOLIC/ENDOCRINE Decreased appetite Gynecomastia, hypoglycemic reaction, acidosis
CARDIOVASCULAR Edema, fluid retention (generally responds promptly to drug discontinuation) (see PRECAUTIONS) Congestive heart failure in patients with marginal cardiac function elevated blood pressure, palpitations Arrhythmias (sinus tachycardia, sinus bradycardia)
ALLERGIC Syndrome of abdominal pain, fever, chills, nausea and vomiting; anaphylaxis; bronchospasm (see CONTRADICATIONS) Serum sickness, lupuserythematosus syndrome, Henoch-Schonlein vasculitis, angioedema
RENAL Acute renal failure see PRECAUTIONS), decreased creatinine clearance, polyuria, azotemia, cystitis, Hematuria Renal papillary necrosis
MISCELLANEOUS

Dry eyes and mouth, gingival ulcer, rhinitis

*Reactions are classified under “Probable Causal Relationship (PCR)” if there has been one positive rechallenge or if three or more cases occur which might be causally related. Reactions are classified under “Causal Relationship Unknown” if seven or more events have been reported but the criteria for PCR have not been met.
†Reactions occurring in 3%to 9%of patients treated with ibuprofen tablets. (Those reactions occurring in less than 3%of the patients are unmarked).

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