IBUPROFEN- ibuprofen suspension
Taro Pharmaceuticals U.S.A., Inc.
Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause an increased risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic events, including myocardial infarction and stroke, which can be fatal. This risk may occur early in treatment and may increase with duration of use (see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS).
- Ibuprofen oral suspension is contraindicated in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS).
- NSAIDs cause an increased risk of serious gastrointestinal adverse events including bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach or intestines, which can be fatal. These events can occur at any time during use and without warning symptoms. Elderly patients are at greater risk for serious gastrointestinal events (see WARNINGS).
The active ingredient in ibuprofen oral suspension USP is ibuprofen, which is a member of the propionic acid group of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Ibuprofen is a racemic mixture of [+]S- and [-]R-enantiomers. It is a white to off-white crystalline powder, with a melting point of 74° to 77°C. It is practically insoluble in water (< 0.1 mg/mL), but readily soluble in organic solvents such as ethanol and acetone. Ibuprofen, USP has a pKa of 4.43 ± 0.03 and an n-octanol/water partition coefficient of 11.7 at pH 7.4. The chemical name for ibuprofen is (±)-2-(p -Isobutylphenyl) propionic acid. The molecular weight of ibuprofen is 206.28. Its molecular formula is C13 H18 O2 and it has the following structural formula:
Ibuprofen oral suspension USP is a sucrose-sweetened, white to off-white, berry-flavored suspension containing 100 mg of ibuprofen in 5 mL (20 mg/mL). Inactive ingredients include: acesulfame potassium, berry flavor natural & artificial, citric acid anhydrous, glycerin, polysorbate 80, pregelatinized modified starch, purified water, sodium benzoate, sucrose, xanthan gum.
Meets USP Dissolution Test 2.
Ibuprofen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that possesses anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity. Its mode of action, like that of other NSAIDs, is not completely understood, but may be related to prostaglandin synthetase inhibition. After absorption of the racemic ibuprofen, the [-]R-enantiomer undergoes interconversion to the [+]S-form. The biological activities of ibuprofen are associated with the [+]S-enantiomer.
In a healthy volunteer study, ibuprofen 400 mg given once daily, administered 2 hours prior to immediate-release aspirin (81 mg) for 6 days, showed an interaction with the antiplatelet activity of aspirin as measured by % serum thromboxane B2 (TxB2) inhibition at 24 hours following the day-6 aspirin dose [53%]. An interaction was still observed, but minimized, when ibuprofen 400 mg given once-daily was administered as early as 8 hours prior to the immediate-release aspirin dose [90.7%]. However, there was no interaction with the antiplatelet activity of aspirin when ibuprofen 400 mg, given once daily, was administered 2 hours after (but not concomitantly, 15 min, or 30 min after) the immediate-release aspirin dose [99.2%].
In another study, where immediate-release aspirin 81 mg was administered once daily with ibuprofen 400 mg given three times daily (1, 7, and 13 hours post-aspirin dose) for 10 consecutive days, the mean % serum thromboxane B2 (TxB2) inhibition suggested no interaction with the antiplatelet activity of aspirin [98.3%]. However, there were individual subjects with serum TxB2 inhibition below 95%, with the lowest being 90.2%.
When a similarly designed study was conducted with enteric-coated aspirin, where healthy subjects were administered enteric-coated aspirin 81 mg once daily for 6 days and ibuprofen 400 mg three times daily (2, 7 and 12 h post-aspirin dose) for 6 days, there was an interaction with the antiplatelet activity at 24 hours following the day-6 aspirin dose [67%] (see PRECAUTIONS-Drug Interactions).
Ibuprofen is a racemic mixture of [-]R-and [+]S-isomers.
In vivo and in vitro studies indicate that the [+]S-isomer is responsible for clinical activity. The [-]R-form, while thought to be pharmacologically inactive, is slowly and incompletely (~ 60%) interconverted into the active [+]S species in adults. The degree of interconversion in children is unknown, but is thought to be similar. The [-]R-isomer serves as a circulating reservoir to maintain levels of active drug. Ibuprofen is well absorbed orally, with less than 1% being excreted in the urine unchanged. It has a biphasic elimination time curve with a plasma half-life of approximately 2 hours.
Studies in febrile children have established the dose-proportionality of 5 and 10 mg/kg doses of ibuprofen. Studies in adults have established the dose-proportionality of ibuprofen as a single oral dose from 50 to 600 mg for total drug and up to 1200 mg for free drug.
In vivo studies indicate that ibuprofen is well absorbed orally from the suspension formulation, with peak plasma levels usually occurring within 1 to 2 hours (see Table 1).
|Dose||200 mg (2.8 mg/kg) in Adults||10 mg/kg in Febrile Children|
|Legend: AUCinf = Area-under-the-curve to infinity Tmax = Time-to-peak plasma concentration Cmax = Peak plasma concentration Cl/F = Clearance divided by fraction at drug absorbed|
|Number of Patients||24||18|
A bioavailability study in adults has shown that there was no interference with the absorption of ibuprofen when given in conjunction with an antacid containing both aluminum hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide.
In studies with human volunteers, coadministration of cimetidine or ranitidine with ibuprofen had no substantive effect on ibuprofen serum concentrations.
Absorption is most rapid when ibuprofen is given under fasting conditions.
Administration of ibuprofen with food affects the rate but not the extent of absorption. When taken with food, Tmax is delayed by approximately 30 to 60 minutes, and peak levels are reduced by approximately 30 to 50%.
Ibuprofen, like most drugs of its class, is highly protein bound (>99% bound at 20 mcg/mL). Protein binding is saturable and at concentrations >20 mcg/mL binding is non-linear. Based on oral dosing data there is an age- or fever-related change in volume of distribution for ibuprofen. Febrile children <11 years old have a volume of approximately 0.2 L/kg while adults have a volume of approximately 0.12 L/kg. The clinical significance of these findings is unknown.
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