Ibuprofen (Page 3 of 5)

Pregnancy

In late pregnancy, as with other NSAIDs, IBU tablets should beavoided because it may cause premature closure of the ductus arteriosus.

PRECAUTIONS

General

IBU tablets cannot be expected to substitute for corticosteroids orto treat corticosteroid insufficiency. Abrupt discontinuation of corticosteroidsmay lead to disease exacerbation. Patients on prolongedcorticosteroid therapy should have their therapy tapered slowly if adecision is made to discontinue corticosteroids.

The pharmacological activity of IBU tablets in reducing fever andinflammation may diminish the utility of these diagnostic signs indetecting complications of presumed noninfectious, painful conditions.

Hepatic effects

Borderline elevations of one or more liver tests may occur in upto 15% of patients taking NSAIDs, including IBU tablets. These laboratoryabnormalities may progress, may remain unchanged, or maybe transient with continuing therapy. Notable elevations of ALT orAST (approximately three or more times the upper limit of normal)have been reported in approximately 1% of patients in clinical trialswith NSAIDs. In addition, rare cases of severe hepatic reactions,including jaundice, fulminant hepatitis, liver necrosis, and hepaticfailure, some of them with fatal outcomes have been reported. Apatient with symptoms and/or signs suggesting liver dysfunction, orwith abnormal liver test values, should be evaluated for evidence ofthe development of a more severe hepatic reaction while on therapywith IBU tablets. If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liverdisease develop, or if systemic manifestations occur (e.g.,eosinophilia, rash, etc.), IBU tablets should be discontinued.

Hematological effects

Anemia is sometimes seen in patients receiving NSAIDs, includingIBU tablets. This may be due to fluid retention, occult or gross GIblood loss, or an incompletely described effect upon erythropoiesis.Patients on long-term treatment with NSAIDs, including IBU tablets,should have their hemoglobin or hematocrit checked if they exhibitany signs or symptoms of anemia.

In two postmarketing clinical studies the incidence of a decreasedhemoglobin level was greater than previously reported. Decrease inhemoglobin of 1 gram or more was observed in 17.1% of 193patients on 1600 mg ibuprofen daily (osteoarthritis), and in 22.8% of189 patients taking 2400 mg of ibuprofen daily (rheumatoid arthritis).Positive stool occult blood tests and elevated serum creatinine levelswere also observed in these studies.

NSAIDs inhibit platelet aggregation and have been shown to prolongbleeding time in some patients. Unlike aspirin, their effect onplatelet function is quantitatively less, of shorter duration, and reversible.

Patients receiving IBU tablets who may be adversely affected byalterations in platelet function, such as those with coagulation disordersor patients receiving anticoagulants should be carefully monitored.

Preexisting asthma

Patients with asthma may have aspirin-sensitive asthma. The useof aspirin in patients with aspirin-sensitive asthma has been associatedwith severe bronchospasm, which can be fatal. Since cross reactivity,including bronchospasm, between aspirin and NSAIDs hasbeen reported in such aspirin-sensitive patients, IBU tablets shouldnot be administered to patients with this form of aspirin sensitivityand should be used with caution in patients with preexisting asthma.

Ophthalmological effects.

Blurred and/or diminished vision, scotomata, and/or changes incolor vision have been reported. If a patient develops such complaintswhile receiving IBU tablets, the drug should be discontinued, and thepatient should have an ophthalmologic examination which includescentral visual fields and color vision testing.

Aseptic Meningitis

Aseptic meningitis with fever and coma has been observed on rareoccasions in patients on ibuprofen therapy. Although it is probablymore likely to occur in patients with systemic lupus erythematosusand related connective tissue diseases, it has been reported inpatients who do not have an underlying chronic disease. If signs orsymptoms of meningitis develop in a patient on IBU tablets, the possibilityof its being related to IBU tablets should be considered.

Information for Patients

Patients should be informed of the following information beforeinitiating therapy with an NSAID and periodically during the course ofongoing therapy. Patients should also be encouraged to read theNSAID Medication Guide that accompanies each prescription dispensed

• Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events: Advise patients to be alert for the symptoms of cardiovascular thrombotic events, including chest pain, shortness of breath, weakness, or slurring of speech, and to report any of these symptoms to their health care provider immediately [see WARNINGS].

• IBU tablets, like other NSAIDs, can cause GI discomfort and, rarely,serious GI side effects, such as ulcers and bleeding, which mayresult in hospitalization and even death. Although serious GI tractulcerations and bleeding can occur without warning symptoms,patients should be alert for the signs and symptoms of ulcerationsand bleeding, and should ask for medical advice when observingany indicative signs or symptoms including epigastric pain, dyspepsia,melena, and hematemesis. Patients should be apprised of theimportance of this follow-up (see WARNINGS,Gastrointestinal Effects-Risk of Ulceration, Bleeding and Perforation).

• IBU tablets, like other NSAIDs, can cause serious skin side effectssuch as exfoliative dermatitis, SJS and TEN, which may result inhospitalization and even death. Although serious skin reactions mayoccur without warning, patients should be alert for the signs andsymptoms of skin rash and blisters, fever, or other signs of hypersensitivitysuch as itching, and should ask for medical advice whenobserving any indicative sign or symptoms. Patients should beadvised to stop the drug immediately if they develop any type ofrash and contact their physicians as soon as possible.

• Heart Failure and Edema: Advise patients to be alert for the symptoms of congestive heart failure including shortness of breath, unexplained weight gain, or edema and to contact their healthcare provider if such symptoms occur [see WARNINGS].

• Patients should be informed of the warning signs and symptoms ofhepatotoxicity (e.g., nausea, fatigue, lethargy, pruritus, jaundice,right upper quadrant tenderness and “flu-like” symptoms). If theseoccur, patients should be instructed to stop therapy and seek immediatemedical therapy.

• Patients should be informed of the signs of an anaphylactoid reaction(e.g. difficulty breathing, swelling of the face or throat). If theseoccur, patients should be instructed to seek immediate emergencyhelp (see WARNINGS).

• In late pregnancy, as with other NSAIDs, IBU tablets should beavoided because it may cause premature closure of the ductus arteriosus.

Laboratory Tests

Because serious GI tract ulcerations and bleeding can occur withoutwarning symptoms, physicians should monitor for signs orsymptoms of GI bleeding. Patients on long-term treatment withNSAIDs should have their CBC and chemistry profile checked periodically.If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver or renaldisease develop, systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia,rash etc.), or abnormal liver tests persist or worsen, IBU tabletsshould be discontinued.

Drug Interactions

ACE-inhibitors: Reports suggest that NSAIDs may diminish the antihypertensiveeffect of ACE-inhibitors. This interaction should be given considerationin patients taking NSAIDs concomitantly with ACE-inhibitors.

Aspirin:

Pharmacodynamic studies have demonstrated interference with the antiplatelet activity of aspirin when ibuprofen 400 mg, given three times daily, is administered with enteric‑ coated low-dose aspirin. The interaction exists even following a once-daily regimen of ibuprofen 400 mg, particularly when ibuprofen is dosed prior to aspirin. The interaction is alleviated if immediate-release low-dose aspirin is dosed at least 2 hours prior to a once‑ daily regimen of ibuprofen; however, this finding cannot be extended to enteric-coated low-dose aspirin [see Clinical Pharmacology/Pharmacodynamics].

Because there may be an increased risk of cardiovascular events due to the interference of ibuprofen with the antiplatelet effect of aspirin, for patients taking low-dose aspirin for cardio protection who require analgesics, consider use of an NSAID that does not interfere with the antiplatelet effect of aspirin, or non-NSAID analgesics, where appropriate.

When IBU tablets are administered with aspirin, its protein bindingis reduced, although the clearance of free IBU tablets is notaltered. The clinical significance of this interaction is not known; however,as with other NSAIDs, concomitant administration of ibuprofenand aspirin is not generally recommended because of the potential forincreased adverse effects.

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