Clinical studies, as well as post marketing observations, haveshown that Ibuprofen tablets can reduce the natriuretic effect-offurosemide and thiazides in some patients. This response has beenattributed to inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis. During concomitanttherapy with NSAIDs, the patient should be observed closelyfor signs of renal failure (see PRECAUTIONS, Renal Effects), aswell as to assure diuretic efficacy.
Ibuprofen produced an elevation of plasma lithium levels and areduction in renal lithium clearance in a study of eleven normal volunteers.The mean minimum lithium concentration increased 15%and the renal clearance of lithium was decreased by 19% during thisperiod of concomitant drug administration.This effect has been attributed to inhibition of renal prostaglandinsynthesis by ibuprofen. Thus, when ibuprofen and lithium are administeredconcurrently, subjects should be observed carefully for signsof lithium toxicity. (Read circulars for lithium preparation before useof such concurrent therapy.)
NSAIDs have been reported to competitively inhibit methotrexateaccumulation in rabbit kidney slices. This may indicate that they couldenhance the toxicity of methotrexate. Caution should be used whenNSAIDs are administered concomitantly with methotrexate.
Several short-term controlled studies failed to show that Ibuprofentablets significantly affected prothrombin times or a variety of otherclotting factors when administered to individuals on coumarin-typeanticoagulants. However, because bleeding has been reported whenIBU tablets and other NSAIDs have been administered to patients oncoumarin-type anticoagulants, the physician should be cautiouswhen administering IBU tablets to patients on anticoagulants. Theeffects of warfarin and NSAIDs on GI bleeding are synergistic, suchthat the users of both drugs together have a risk of serious GI bleedinghigher than users of either drug alone.
In studies with human volunteers, co-administration of cimetidineor ranitidine with ibuprofen had no substantive effect on ibuprofenserum concentrations.
Teratogenic effects: Pregnancy Category C
Reproductive studies conducted in rats and rabbits have notdemonstrated evidence of developmental abnormalities. However,animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of humanresponse. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnantwomen. Ibuprofen should be used in pregnancy only if thepotential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Because of the known effects of NSAIDs on the fetal cardiovascularsystem (closure of ductus arteriosus), use during late pregnancyshould be avoided.
In rat studies with NSAIDs, as with other drugs known to inhibitprostaglandin synthesis, an increased incidence of dystocia, delayedparturition, and decreased pup survival occurred. The effects of IBUtablets on labor and delivery in pregnant women are unknown.
It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk.Because many drugs are excreted in human-milk and because of thepotential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from IBUtablets, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing ordiscontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drugto the mother.
Safety and effectiveness of IBU tablets in pediatric patients havenot been established.
As with any NSAIDs, caution should be exercised in treating theelderly (65 years and older).
The most frequent type of adverse reaction occurring withIbuprofen tablets is gastrointestinal. In controlled clinical trials thepercentage of patients reporting one or more gastrointestinal complaintsranged from 4% to 16%.
In controlled studies when Ibuprofen tablets were compared toaspirin and indomethacin in equally effective doses, the overall incidenceof gastrointestinal complaints was about half that seen in eitherthe aspirin- or indomethacin-treated patients.
Adverse reactions observed during controlled clinical trials at anincidence greater than 1% are listed in the table. Those reactions listedin Column one encompass observations in approximately 3,000patients. More than 500 of these patients were treated for periods ofat least 54 weeks.
Still other reactions occurring less frequently than 1 in 100 werereported in controlled clinical trials and from marketing experience.These reactions have been divided into two categories: Column twoof the table lists reactions with therapy with Ibuprofen tablets wherethe probability of a causal relationship exists: for the reactions inColumn three, a causal relationship with Ibuprofen tablets has notbeen established.
Reported side effects were higher at doses of 3200 mg/day thanat doses of 2400 mg or less per day in clinical trials of patients withrheumatoid arthritis. The increases in incidence were slight and stillwithin the ranges reported in the table.
Approximately 11⁄2 hours after the reported ingestion of from 7 to10 Ibuprofen tablets (400 mg), a 19-month old child weighing 12 kgwas seen in the hospital emergency room, apneic and cyanotic,responding only to painful stimuli. This type of stimulus, however,was sufficient to induce respiration. Oxygen and parenteral fluidswere given; a greenish-yellow fluid was aspirated from the stomachwith no evidence to indicate the presence of ibuprofen. Two hoursafter ingestion the child’s condition seemed stable; she still respondedonly to painful stimuli and continued to have periods of apnea lastingfrom 5 to 10 seconds. She was admitted to intensive care andsodium bicarbonate was administered as well as infusions of dextroseand normal saline. By four hours post-ingestion she could bearoused easily, sit by herself and respond to spoken commands.Blood level of ibuprofen was 102.9 μg/mL approximately 81⁄2 hoursafter accidental ingestion. At 12 hours she appeared to be completelyrecovered.
In two other reported cases where children (each weighingapproximately 10 kg) accidentally, acutely ingested approximately120 mg/kg, there were no signs of acute intoxication or late sequelae.Blood level in one child 90 minutes after ingestion was 700 μg/mL —about 10 times the peak levels seen in absorption-excretion studies.A 19-year old male who had taken 8,000 mg of ibuprofen over aperiod of a few hours complained of dizziness, and nystagmus wasnoted. After hospitalization, parenteral hydration and three days bedrest, he recovered with no reported sequelae.
In cases of acute overdosage, the stomach should be emptied byvomiting or lavage, though little drug will likely be recovered if morethan an hour has elapsed since ingestion. Because the drug is acidicand is excreted in the urine, it is theoretically beneficial to administeralkali and induce diuresis. In addition to supportive measures, the useof oral activated charcoal may help to reduce the absorption andreabsorption of Ibuprofen tablets.
Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of IBU tabletsand other treatment options before deciding to use IBU tablets. Usethe lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent withindividual patient treatment goals (see WARNINGS).
After observing the response to initial therapy with IBU tablets, thedose and frequency should be adjusted to suit an individual patient’sneeds.Do not exceed 3200 mg total daily dose. If gastrointestinal complaintsoccur, administer IBU tablets with meals or milk.
Suggested Dosage: 1200 mg-3200 mg daily (400 mg, 600 mg or800 mg tid or qid). Individual patients may show a better responseto 3200 mg daily, as compared with 2400 mg, although in well-controlledclinical trials patients on 3200 mg did not show a better meanresponse in terms of efficacy. Therefore, when treating patients with3200 mg/day, the physician should observe sufficient increased clinicalbenefits to offset potential increased risk.The dose should be tailored to each patient, and may be loweredor raised depending on the severity of symptoms either at time of initiatingdrug therapy or as the patient responds or fails to respond.In general, patients with rheumatoid arthritis seem to require higherdoses of IBU tablets than do patients with osteoarthritis.
The smallest dose of IBU tablets that yields acceptable controlshould be employed. A linear blood level dose-response relationshipexists with single doses up to 800 mg (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGYfor effects of food on rate of absorption).
The availability of three tablet strengths facilitates dosage adjustment.In chronic conditions, a therapeutic response to therapy with IBU tablets is sometimes seen in a few days to a week but most often isobserved by two weeks. After a satisfactory response has beenachieved, the patient’s dose should be reviewed and adjusted asrequired.
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