IFEX (Page 4 of 6)

8.6 Use in Patients with Renal Impairment

No formal studies were conducted in patients with renal impairment. Ifosfamide and its metabolites are known to be excreted by the kidneys and may accumulate in plasma with decreased renal function. Patients with renal impairment should be closely monitored for toxicity and dose reduction may be considered. Ifosfamide and its metabolites are dialyzable.

8.7 Use in Patients with Hepatic Impairment

No formal studies were conducted in patients with hepatic impairment. Ifosfamide is extensively metabolized in the liver and forms both efficacious and toxic metabolites. IFEX should be given cautiously to patients with impaired hepatic function.

10 OVERDOSAGE

No specific antidote for IFEX is known.

Patients who receive an overdose should be closely monitored for the development of toxicities. Serious consequences of overdosage include manifestations of dose-dependent toxicities such as CNS toxicity, nephrotoxicity, myelosuppression, and mucositis [see Warnings and Precautions (5)].

Management of overdosage would include general supportive measures to sustain the patient through any period of toxicity that might occur, including appropriate state-of-the-art treatment for any concurrent infection, myelosuppression, or other toxicity. Ifosfamide as well as ifosfamide metabolites are dialyzable.

Cystitis prophylaxis with mesna may be helpful in preventing or limiting urotoxic effects with overdose.

11 DESCRIPTION

IFEX (ifosfamide for injection, USP) single-dose vials for constitution and administration by intravenous infusion each contain 1 gram or 3 grams of sterile ifosfamide. Ifosfamide is a chemotherapeutic agent chemically related to the nitrogen mustards and a synthetic analog of cyclophosphamide. Ifosfamide is 3-(2-chloroethyl)-2-[(2-chloroethyl)amino]tetrahydro-2H-1,3,2-oxazaphosphorine 2-oxide. The molecular formula is C7 H15 Cl2 N2 O2 P and its molecular weight is 261.1. Ifosfamide is a white crystalline powder soluble in water. There are no excipients in the formulation. Each vial contains 1 gram or 3 grams of sterile ifosfamide alone.

Its structural formula is:

IFEX  Structural Formula
(click image for full-size original)

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

Ifosfamide is a prodrug that requires metabolic activation by hepatic cytochrome P450 isoenzymes to exert its cytotoxic activity. Activation occurs by hydroxylation at the ring carbon atom forming the unstable intermediate 4-hydroxyifosfamide and its ring-opened aldo tautomer, which decomposes to yield the cytotoxic and urotoxic compound acrolein and an alkylating isophosphoramide mustard as well as multiple other nontoxic products. The exact mechanism of action of ifosfamide has not been determined, but its cytotoxic action is primarily through DNA crosslinks caused by alkylation by the isophosphoramide mustard at guanine N-7 positions. The formation of inter- and intra-strand cross-links in the DNA results in cell death.

12.3 Pharmacokinetics

Ifosfamide exhibits dose-dependent pharmacokinetics in humans. At single doses of 3.8 to 5.0 g/m2 , the plasma concentrations decay biphasically and the mean terminal elimination half-life is about 15 hours. At doses of 1.6 to 2.4 g/m2 /day, the plasma decay is monoexponential and the terminal elimination half-life is about 7 hours.

Ifosfamide exhibits time-dependent pharmacokinetics in humans. Following intravenous administration of 1.5 g/m2 over 0.5 hour once daily for 5 days to 15 patients with neoplastic disease, a decrease in the median elimination half-life from 7.2 hour on Day 1 to 4.6 hours on Day 5 occurred with a concomitant increase in the median clearance from 66 mL/min on Day 1 to 115 mL/min on Day 5. There was no significant change in the volume of distribution on Day 5 compared with Day 1.

Distribution

Ifosfamide volume of distribution (Vd) approximates the total body water volume, suggesting that distribution takes place with minimal tissue binding. Following intravenous administration of 1.5 g/m2 over 0.5 hour once daily for 5 days to 15 patients with neoplastic disease, the median Vd of ifosfamide was 0.64 L/kg on Day 1 and 0.72 L/kg on Day 5. Ifosfamide shows little plasma protein binding. Ifosfamide and its active metabolites are extensively bound by red blood cells. Ifosfamide is not a substrate for P-glycoprotein.

Metabolism

Ifosfamide is extensively metabolized in humans through two metabolic pathways: ring oxidation (“activation”) to form the active metabolite, 4-hydroxy-ifosfamide and side-chain oxidation to form the inactive metabolites, 3-dechloro-ethylifosfamide or 2-dechloroethylifosfamide with liberation of the toxic metabolite, chloroacetaldehyde. Small quantities (nmol/mL) of ifosfamide mustard and 4-hydroxyifosfamide are detectable in human plasma. Metabolism of ifosfamide is required for the generation of the biologically active species and while metabolism is extensive, it is also quite variable among patients.

Excretion

After administration of doses of 5 g/m2 of 14 C-labeled ifosfamide, from 70% to 86% of the dosed radioactivity was recovered in urine as metabolites, with about 61% of the dose excreted as parent compound. At doses of 1.6 to 2.4 g/m2 only 12% to 18% of the dose was excreted in the urine as unchanged drug within 72 hours. Two different dechloroethylated derivatives of ifosfamide, 4-carboxyifosfamide, thiodiacetic acid and cysteine conjugates of chloroacetic acid have been identified as the major urinary metabolites of ifosfamide in humans and only small amounts of 4-hydroxyifosfamide and acrolein are present.

Pediatrics

Population PK analysis was performed on plasma data from 32 pediatric patients various malignant diseases aged between 1 and 18 years. Patients received a total of 45 courses of ifosfamide at doses of 1.2, 2.0 and 3.0 g/m2 given intravenously over 1 or 3 hours on 1, 2, or 3 days. The mean±standard error population estimates for the initial clearance and volume of distribution of ifosfamide were 2.4±0.33 L/h/m2 and 21±1.6 L/m2 with an interindividual variability of 43% and 32%, respectively.

Effect of Age

A study of 20 patients between 40 to 71 years of age receiving 1.5 g/m2 of ifosfamide daily for 3 or 5 days indicated that elimination half-life appears to increase with age. The elimination half-life increase appeared to be related to the increase in ifosfamide volume of distribution with age. No significant changes in total plasma clearance or renal clearance with age were reported.

13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Ifosfamide has been shown to be carcinogenic in rats when administered by intraperitoneal injection at 6 mg/kg (37 mg/m2 , or about 3% of the daily human dose on a mg/m2 basis) 3 times a week for 52 weeks. Female rats had a significantly higher incidence of uterine leiomyosarcomas and mammary fibroadenomas than vehicle controls.

The mutagenic potential of ifosfamide has been documented in bacterial systems in vitro and mammalian cells in vivo. In vivo , ifosfamide has induced mutagenic effects in mice and Drosophila melanogaster germ cells, and has induced a significant increase in dominant lethal mutations in male mice as well as recessive sex-linked lethal mutations in Drosophila.

Ifosfamide was administered to male and female beagle dogs at doses of 1.00 or 4.64 mg/kg/day (20 or 93 mg/m2) orally 6 days a week for 26 weeks. Male dogs at 4.64 mg/kg (about 7.7% of the daily clinical dose on a mg/m2 basis) had testicular atrophy with degeneration of the seminiferous tubular epithelium. In a second study, male and female rats were given 0, 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg (0, 150, 300, or 600 mg/m2) ifosfamide intraperitoneally once every 3 weeks for 6 months. Decreased spermatogenesis was observed in most male rats given 100 mg/kg (about half the daily clinical dose on a mg/m2 basis).

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