IFOSFAMIDE AND MESNA-
Teva Parenteral Medicines, Inc
WARNING: MYELOSUPPRESSION, NEUROTOXICITY, and UROTOXICITY
Myelosuppression can be severe and lead to fatal infections. Monitor blood counts prior to and at intervals after each treatment cycle. CNS toxicities can be severe and result in encephalopathy and death. Monitor for CNS toxicity and discontinue treatment for encephalopathy. Nephrotoxicity can be severe and result in renal failure. Hemorrhagic cystitis can be severe and can be reduced by the prophylactic use of mesna [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1 to 5.3)].
Ifosfamide injection is indicated for use in combination with certain other approved antineoplastic agents for third-line chemotherapy of germ cell testicular cancer. It should be used in combination with mesna for prophylaxis of hemorrhagic cystitis.
Ifosfamide injection should be administered intravenously at a dose of 1.2 grams per m2 per day for 5 consecutive days. Treatment is repeated every 3 weeks or after recovery from hematologic toxicity.
In order to prevent bladder toxicity, ifosfamide injection should be given with extensive hydration consisting of at least 2 liters of oral or intravenous fluid per day. Mesna should be used to reduce the incidence of hemorrhagic cystitis. Ifosfamide injection should be administered as a slow intravenous infusion lasting a minimum of 30 minutes. Studies of ifosfamide injection in patients with hepatic or renal impairment have not been conducted [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6, 8.7)].
Solutions of ifosfamide may be diluted further to achieve concentrations of 0.6 to 20 mg/mL in the following fluids:
5% dextrose injection, USP
0.9% sodium chloride injection, USP
Lactated ringer’s injections, USP
Sterile water for injection, USP
Because essentially identical stability results were obtained for sterile water admixtures as for the other admixtures (5% dextrose injection, 0.9% sodium chloride injection, and lactated ringer’s injection), the use of large volume parenteral glass bottles, viaflex bags or PAB™ bags that contain intermediate concentrations or mixtures of excipients (e.g., 2.5% dextrose injection, 0.45% sodium chloride injection, or 5% dextrose and 0.9% sodium chloride injection) is also acceptable.
Constituted or constituted and further diluted solutions of ifosfamide injection should be refrigerated and used within 24 hours. Benzyl-alcohol-containing solutions can reduce the stability of ifosfamide.
Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit.
1 gram single-dose vial
3 gram single-dose vial
Ifosfamide is contraindicated in patients with:
- Known hypersensitivity to administration of ifosfamide.
- Urinary outflow obstruction.
Treatment with ifosfamide may cause myelosuppression and significant suppression of immune responses, which can lead to severe infections. Fatal outcomes of ifosfamide-associated myelosuppression have been reported. Ifosfamide-induced myelosuppression can cause leukopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia (associated with a higher risk of bleeding events), and anemia. The nadir of the leukocyte count tends to be reached approximately during the second week after administration. When ifosfamide is given in combination with other chemotherapeutic/hematotoxic agents and/or radiation therapy, severe myelosuppression is frequently observed. The risk of myelosuppression is dose-dependent and is increased with administration of a single high dose compared with fractionated administration. The risk of myelosuppression is also increased in patients with reduced renal function.
Severe immunosuppression has led to serious, sometimes fatal, infections. Sepsis and septic shock also have been reported. Infections reported with ifosfamide include pneumonias, as well as other bacterial, fungal, viral, and parasitic infections. Latent infections can be reactivated. In patients treated with ifosfamide, reactivation has been reported for various viral infections. Infections must be treated appropriately. Antimicrobial prophylaxis may be indicated in certain cases of neutropenia at the discretion of the managing physician. In case of neutropenic fever, antibiotics and/or antimycotics must be given. Close hematologic monitoring is recommended. White blood cell (WBC) count, platelet count and hemoglobin should be obtained prior to each administration and at appropriate intervals after administration. Unless clinically essential, ifosfamide should not be given to patients with a WBC count below 2000/µL and/or a platelet count below 50,000/µL.
Ifosfamide should be given cautiously, if at all, to patients with presence of an infection, severe immunosuppression or compromised bone marrow reserve, as indicated by leukopenia, granulocytopenia, extensive bone marrow metastases, prior radiation therapy, or prior therapy with other cytotoxic agents.
Administration of ifosfamide can cause CNS toxicity and other neurotoxic effects. The risk of CNS toxicity and other neurotoxic effects necessitates careful monitoring of the patient. Neurologic manifestations consisting of somnolence, confusion, hallucinations, blurred vision, psychotic behavior, extrapyramidal symptoms, urinary incontinence, seizures, and in some instances, coma, have been reported following ifosfamide therapy. There have also been reports of peripheral neuropathy associated with ifosfamide use.
Ifosfamide neurotoxicity may become manifest within a few hours to a few days after first administration and in most cases resolves within 48 to 72 hours of ifosfamide discontinuation. Symptoms may persist for longer periods of time. Supportive therapy should be maintained until their complete resolution. Occasionally, recovery has been incomplete. Fatal outcomes of CNS toxicity have been reported. Recurrence of CNS toxicity after several uneventful treatment courses has been reported. If encephalopathy develops, administration of ifosfamide should be discontinued.
Due to the potential for additive effects, drugs acting on the CNS (such as antiemetics, sedatives, narcotics, or antihistamines) must be used with particular caution or, if necessary, be discontinued in case of ifosfamide-induced encephalopathy.
Manifestations of CNS toxicity may impair a patient’s ability to operate an automobile or other heavy machinery.
Ifosfamide is both nephrotoxic and urotoxic. Glomerular and tubular kidney function must be evaluated before commencement of therapy as well as during and after treatment. Monitor urinary sediment regularly for the presence of erythrocytes and other signs of uro/nephrotoxicity.
Monitor serum and urine chemistries, including phosphorus and potassium regularly. Administer appropriate replacement therapy as indicated. Renal parenchymal and tubular necrosis have been reported in patients treated with ifosfamide. Acute tubular necrosis, acute renal failure, and chronic renal failure secondary to ifosfamide therapy have been reported, and fatal outcome from nephrotoxicity has been documented.
Disorders of renal function, (glomerular and tubular) following ifosfamide administration are very common. Manifestations include a decrease in glomerular filtration rate, increased serum creatinine, proteinuria, enzymuria, cylindruria, aminoaciduria, phosphaturia, and glycosuria as well as tubular acidosis. Fanconi syndrome, renal rickets, and growth retardation in children as well as osteomalacia in adults also have been reported. Development of a syndrome resembling SIADH (syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion) has been reported with ifosfamide.
Tubular damage may become apparent during therapy, months or even years after cessation of treatment. Glomerular or tubular dysfunction may resolve with time, remain stable, or progress over a period of months or years, even after completion of ifosfamide treatment.
The risk and expected benefits of ifosfamide therapy should be carefully weighed when considering the use of ifosfamide in patients with preexisting renal impairment or reduced nephron reserve.
Urotoxic side effects, especially hemorrhagic cystitis, have been very commonly associated with the use of ifosfamide. These urotoxic effects can be reduced by prophylactic use of mesna.
Hemorrhagic cystitis requiring blood transfusion has been reported with ifosfamide. The risk of hemorrhagic cystitis is dose-dependent and increased with administration of single high doses compared to fractionated administration. Hemorrhagic cystitis after a single dose of ifosfamide has been reported. Past or concomitant radiation of the bladder or busulfan treatment may increase the risk for hemorrhagic cystitis.
Before starting treatment, it is necessary to exclude or correct any urinary tract obstructions [see Contraindications (4)].
During or immediately after administration, adequate amounts of fluid should be ingested or infused to force dieresis in order to reduce the risk of urinary tract toxicity. Obtain a urinalysis prior to each dose of ifosfamide. If microscopic hematuria (greater than 10 RBCs per high power field) is present, then subsequent administration should be withheld until complete resolution. Further administration of ifosfamide should be given with vigorous oral or parenteral hydration.
Ifosfamide should be used with caution, if at all, in patients with active urinary tract infections.
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