INDOMETHACIN- indomethacin capsule
Northwind Pharmaceuticals, LLC
WARNING: RISK OF SERIOUS CARDIOVASCULAR AND GASTROINTESTINAL EVENTS
Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause an increased risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic events, including myocardial infarction and stroke, which can be fatal. This risk may occur early in treatment and may increase with duration of use [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ].
- Indomethacin capsules are contraindicated in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery [ see Contraindications (4) and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] .
Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, and Perforation
- NSAIDs cause an increased risk of serious gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events including bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach or intestines, which can be fatal. These events can occur at any time during use and without warning symptoms. Elderly patients and patients with a prior history of peptic ulcer disease and/or GI bleeding are at greater risk for serious GI events [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ].
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Indomethacin capsules are indicated for:
- Moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis including acute flares of chronic disease
- Moderate to severe ankylosing spondylitis
- Moderate to severe osteoarthritis
- Acute painful shoulder (bursitis and/or tendinitis)
- Acute gouty arthritis
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
2.1 General Dosing Instructions
Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of indomethacin capsules and other treatment options before deciding to use indomethacin capsules. Use the lowest effective dosage for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals [ see Warnings and Precautions (5) ].
After observing the response to initial therapy with indomethacin, the dose and frequency should be adjusted to suit an individual patient’s needs.
Adverse reactions generally appear to correlate with the dose of indomethacin. Therefore, every effort should be made to determine the lowest effective dosage for the individual patient.
Dosage recommendations for active stages of the following:
2.2 Moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis including acute flares of chronic disease; moderate to severe ankylosing spondylitis; and moderate to severe osteoarthritis
Indomethacin capsules 25 mg twice a day or three times a day. If this is well tolerated, increase the daily dosage by 25 mg or by 50 mg, if required by continuing symptoms, at weekly intervals until a satisfactory response is obtained or until a total daily dose of 150 to 200 mg is reached. Doses above this amount generally do not increase the effectiveness of the drug.
In patients who have persistent night pain and/or morning stiffness, the giving of a large portion, up to a maximum of 100 mg, of the total daily dose at bedtime may be helpful in affording relief. The total daily dose should not exceed 200 mg. In acute flares of chronic rheumatoid arthritis, it may be necessary to increase the dosage by 25 mg or, if required, by 50 mg daily.
If minor adverse effects develop as the dosage is increased, reduce the dosage rapidly to a tolerated dose and observe the patient closely.
If severe adverse reactions occur, stop the drug. After the acute phase of the disease is under control, an attempt to reduce the daily dose should be made repeatedly until the patient is receiving the smallest effective dose or the drug is discontinued.
Careful instructions to, and observations of, the individual patient are essential to the prevention of serious, irreversible, including fatal, adverse reactions.
As advancing years appear to increase the possibility of adverse reactions, indomethacin capsules should be used with greater care in the elderly [see Use in Specific Populations (8.5)].
2.3 Acute painful shoulder (bursitis and/or tendinitis)
Indomethacin capsules 75 to 150 mg daily in 3 or 4 divided doses.
The drug should be discontinued after the signs and symptoms of inflammation have been controlled for several days. The usual course of therapy is 7 to 14 days.
2.4 Acute Gouty Arthritis
Indomethacin capsules 50 mg three times a day until pain is tolerable. The dose should then be rapidly reduced to complete cessation of the drug. Definite relief of pain has been reported within 2 to 4 hours. Tenderness and heat usually subside in 24 to 36 hours, and swelling gradually disappears in 3 to 5 days.
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
Indomethacin Capsules, USP are available containing either 25 mg or 50 mg of indomethacin, USP.
The 25 mg capsule is a size ‘3’ two piece opaque green hard gelatin capsule imprinted with ‘G406’ on the body and ‘G’ on the cap, filled with white to off-white granular powder.
The 50 mg capsule is a size ‘1’ two piece opaque green hard gelatin capsule imprinted with ‘G302’ on the body and ‘G’ on the cap, filled with white to off-white granular powder.
Indomethacin capsules are contraindicated in the following patients:
- Known hypersensitivity (e.g., anaphylactic reactions and serious skin reactions) to indomethacin or any components of the drug product [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.7, 5.9)] .
- History of asthma, urticaria, or other allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs. Severe, sometimes fatal, anaphylactic reactions to NSAIDs have been reported in such patients [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.7, 5.8)] .
- In the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1)].
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
5.1 Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events
Clinical trials of several COX-2 selective and nonselective NSAIDs of up to three years duration have shown an increased risk of serious cardiovascular (CV) thrombotic events, including myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke, which can be fatal. Based on available data, it is unclear that the risk for CV thrombotic events is similar for all NSAIDs. The relative increase in serious CV thrombotic events over baseline conferred by NSAID use appears to be similar in those with and without known CV disease or risk factors for CV disease. However, patients with known CV disease or risk factors had a higher absolute incidence of excess serious CV thrombotic events, due to their increased baseline rate. Some observational studies found that this increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events began as early as the first weeks of treatment. The increase in CV thrombotic risk has been observed most consistently at higher doses.
To minimize the potential risk for an adverse CV event in NSAID-treated patients, use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration possible. Physicians and patients should remain alert for the development of such events, throughout the entire treatment course, even in the absence of previous CV symptoms. Patients should be informed about the symptoms of serious CV events and the steps to take if they occur.
There is no consistent evidence that concurrent use of aspirin mitigates the increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events associated with NSAID use. The concurrent use of aspirin and an NSAID, such as indomethacin, increases the risk of serious gastrointestinal (GI) events [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ].
Status Post Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Surgery
Two large, controlled clinical trials of a COX-2 selective NSAID for the treatment of pain in the first 10 to 14 days following CABG surgery found an increased incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke. NSAIDs are contraindicated in the setting of CABG [ see Contraindications (4) ].
Observational studies conducted in the Danish National Registry have demonstrated that patients treated with NSAIDs in the post-MI period were at increased risk of reinfarction, CV-related death, and all-cause mortality beginning in the first week of treatment. In this same cohort, the incidence of death in the first year post-MI was 20 per 100 person years in NSAID-treated patients compared to 12 per 100 person years in non-NSAID exposed patients. Although the absolute rate of death declined somewhat after the first year post-MI, the increased relative risk of death in NSAID users persisted over at least the next four years of follow-up.
Avoid the use of indomethacin capsules in patients with a recent MI unless the benefits are expected to outweigh the risk of recurrent CV thrombotic events. If indomethacin capsules are used in patients with a recent MI, monitor patients for signs of cardiac ischemia.
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