Indomethacin (Page 6 of 8)

8.4 Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients 14 years of age and younger has not been established.

Indomethacin capsules should not be prescribed for pediatric patients 14 years of age and younger unless toxicity or lack of efficacy associated with other drugs warrants the risk.

In experience with more than 900 pediatric patients reported in the literature or to the manufacturer who were treated with indomethacin capsules, side effects in pediatric patients were comparable to those reported in adults. Experience in pediatric patients has been confined to the use of indomethacin capsules.

If a decision is made to use indomethacin for pediatric patients two years of age or older, such patients should be monitored closely and periodic assessment of liver function is recommended. There have been cases of hepatotoxicity reported in pediatric patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, including fatalities. If indomethacin treatment is instituted, a suggested starting dose is 1 to 2 mg/kg/day given in divided doses. Maximum daily dosage should not exceed 3 mg/kg/day or 150 to 200 mg/day, whichever is less. Limited data are available to support the use of a maximum daily dosage of 4 mg/kg/day or 150 to 200 mg/day, whichever is less. As symptoms subside, the total daily dosage should be reduced to the lowest level required to control symptoms, or the drug should be discontinued.

8.5 Geriatric Use

Elderly patients, compared to younger patients, are at greater risk for NSAID-associated serious cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and/or renal adverse reactions. If the anticipated benefit for the elderly patient outweighs these potential risks, start dosing at the low end of the dosing range, and monitor patients for adverse effects [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.6, 5.14)].

Indomethacin may cause confusion or rarely, psychosis [ see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]; physicians should remain alert to the possibility of such adverse effects in the elderly.

Indomethacin and its metabolites are known to be substantially excreted by the kidneys, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, use caution in this patient population, and it may be useful to monitor renal function [ see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].

10 OVERDOSAGE

Symptoms following acute NSAID overdosages have been typically limited to lethargy, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, and epigastric pain, which have been generally reversible with supportive care. Gastrointestinal bleeding has occurred. Hypertension, acute renal failure, respiratory depression, and coma have occurred, but were rare [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.2, 5.4, 5.6)].

Manage patients with symptomatic and supportive care following an NSAID overdosage. There are no specific antidotes. Consider emesis and/or activated charcoal (60 to 100 grams in adults, 1 to 2 grams per kg of body weight in pediatric patients) and/or osmotic cathartic in symptomatic patients seen within four hours of ingestion or in patients with a large overdosage (5 to 10 times the recommended dosage). Forced diuresis, alkalinization of urine, hemodialysis, or hemoperfusion may not be useful due to high protein binding.

For additional information about overdosage treatment contact a poison control center (1-800-222-1222).

11 DESCRIPTION

Indomethacin Capsules, USP are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, available as capsules containing 25 mg and 50 mg of indomethacin, USP, administered for oral use. The chemical name is 1-( p -chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methylindole-3-acetic acid. The molecular weight is 357.79 g/mol. Its molecular formula is C 19 H 16 ClNO 4 , and it has the following chemical structure.

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(click image for full-size original)

Indomethacin, USP is a white to yellow crystalline powder. It is practically insoluble in water and sparingly soluble in alcohol, chloroform, and in ether. It has a pKa of 4.5 and is stable in neutral or slightly acidic media and decomposes in strong alkali.

The inactive ingredients in Indomethacin Capsules, USP 25 mg and 50 mg include: colloidal silicon dioxide, FD&C Blue No. 1, FD&C Yellow No. 5, gelatin, hypromellose, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium starch glycolate and titanium dioxide.

The imprinting ink contains: black iron oxide, butyl alcohol, dehydrated alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, potassium hydroxide, propylene glycol, shellac and strong ammonia solution.

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

Indomethacin has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties.

The mechanism of action of indomethacin capsules, like that of other NSAIDs, is not completely understood but involves inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2).

Indomethacin is a potent inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis in vitro. Indomethacin concentrations reached during therapy have produced in vivo effects. Prostaglandins sensitize afferent nerves and potentiate the action of bradykinin in inducing pain in animal models. Prostaglandins are mediators of inflammation. Because indomethacin is an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, its mode of action may be due to a decrease of prostaglandins in peripheral tissues.

12.3 Pharmacokinetics

Absorption

Following single oral doses of indomethacin capsules, 25 mg or 50 mg, indomethacin is readily absorbed, attaining peak plasma concentrations of about 1 and 2 mcg/mL, respectively, at about 2 hours. Orally administered indomethacin capsules are virtually 100% bioavailable, with 90% of the dose absorbed within 4 hours. A single 50 mg dose of indomethacin oral suspension was found to be bioequivalent to a 50 mg indomethacin capsules when each was administered with food. With a typical therapeutic regimen of 25 or 50 mg three times a day, the steady-state plasma concentrations of indomethacin are an average 1.4 times those following the first dose.

Distribution

Indomethacin is highly bound to protein in plasma (about 99%) over the expected range of therapeutic plasma concentrations. Indomethacin has been found to cross the blood-brain barrier and the placenta, and appears in breast milk.

Elimination

Metabolism

Indomethacin exists in the plasma as the parent drug and its desmethyl, desbenzoyl, and desmethyldesbenzoyl metabolites, all in the unconjugated form. Appreciable formation of glucuronide conjugates of each metabolite and of indomethacin are formed.

Excretion

Indomethacin is eliminated via renal excretion, metabolism, and biliary excretion. Indomethacin undergoes appreciable enterohepatic circulation. About 60% of an oral dose is recovered in urine as drug and metabolites (26% as indomethacin and its glucuronide), and 33% is recovered in feces (1.5% as indomethacin). The mean half-life of indomethacin is estimated to be about 4.5 hours.

Specific Populations

Pediatric: The pharmacokinetics of indomethacin capsules has not been investigated in pediatric patients.

Race: Pharmacokinetic differences due to race have not been identified.

Hepatic Impairment: The pharmacokinetics of indomethacin capsules has not been investigated in patients with hepatic impairment.

Renal Impairment: The pharmacokinetics of indomethacin capsules has not been investigated in patients with renal impairment [ see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.6)] .

Drug Interaction Studies

Aspirin:

In a study in normal volunteers, it was found that chronic concurrent administration of 3.6 g of aspirin per day decreases indomethacin blood levels approximately 20% [ see Drug Interactions ( 7)] .

When NSAIDs were administered with aspirin, the protein binding of NSAIDs were reduced, although the clearance of free NSAID was not altered. The clinical significance of this interaction is not known. See Table 2 for clinically significant drug interactions of NSAIDs with aspirin [ see Drug Interactions ( 7) ] .

Diflunisal:

In normal volunteers receiving indomethacin, the administration of diflunisal decreased the renal clearance and significantly increased the plasma levels of indomethacin [ see Drug Interactions ( 7) ] .

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