Indomethacin (Page 7 of 8)

13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Carcinogenesis

In an 81-week chronic oral toxicity study in the rat at doses up to 1 mg/kg/day (0.05 times the MRHD on a mg/m 2 basis), indomethacin had no tumorigenic effect. Indomethacin produced no neoplastic or hyperplastic changes related to treatment in carcinogenic studies in the rat (dosing period 73 to 110 weeks) and the mouse (dosing period 62 to 88 weeks) at doses up to 1.5 mg/kg/day (0.04 times [mice] and 0.07 times [rats] the MRHD on a mg/m 2 basis, respectively).

Mutagenesis

Indomethacin did not have any mutagenic effect in in vitro bacterial tests and a series of in vivo tests including the host-mediated assay, sex-linked recessive lethals in Drosophila, and the micronucleus test in mice.

Impairment of Fertility

Indomethacin at dosage levels up to 0.5 mg/kg/day had no effect on fertility in mice in a two generation reproduction study (0.01 times the MRHD on a mg/m 2 basis) or a two litter reproduction study in rats (0.02 times the MRHD on a mg/m 2 basis).

14 CLINICAL STUDIES

Indomethacin has been shown to be an effective anti-inflammatory agent, appropriate for long-term use in rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and osteoarthritis.

Indomethacin capsules affords relief of symptoms; it does not alter the progressive course of the underlying disease.

Indomethacin capsules suppress inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis as demonstrated by relief of pain, and reduction of fever, swelling and tenderness. Improvement in patients treated with indomethacin capsules for rheumatoid arthritis has been demonstrated by a reduction in joint swelling, average number of joints involved, and morning stiffness; by increased mobility as demonstrated by a decrease in walking time; and by improved functional capability as demonstrated by an increase in grip strength. Indomethacin capsules may enable the reduction of steroid dosage in patients receiving steroids for the more severe forms of rheumatoid arthritis. In such instances the steroid dosage should be reduced slowly and the patients followed very closely for any possible adverse effects.

16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING

Indomethacin capsules, USP are available containing either 50 mg of indomethacin, USP.

The 50 mg capsule is a size ‘1’ two piece opaque green hard gelatin capsule imprinted with ‘G302’ on the body and ‘G’ on the cap, filled with white to off-white granular powder. They are available as follows:

Bottles of 20 capsules ‒ NDC 43063-930-20

Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].

Protect from light.

17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION

Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide) that accompanies each prescription dispensed. Inform patients, families, or their caregivers of the following information before initiating therapy with indomethacin capsules and periodically during the course of ongoing therapy.

Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events

Advise patients to be alert for the symptoms of cardiovascular thrombotic events, including chest pain, shortness of breath, weakness, or slurring of speech, and to report any of these symptoms to their health care provider immediately [ see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1) ].

Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, and Perforation

Advise patients to report symptoms of ulcerations and bleeding, including epigastric pain, dyspepsia, melena, and hematemesis to their health care provider. In the setting of concomitant use of low-dose aspirin for cardiac prophylaxis, inform patients of the increased risk for and the signs and symptoms of GI bleeding [ see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2) ].

Hepatotoxicity

Inform patients of the warning signs and symptoms of hepatotoxicity (e.g., nausea, fatigue, lethargy, pruritus, diarrhea, jaundice, right upper quadrant tenderness, and “flu-like” symptoms). If these occur, instruct patients to stop indomethacin capsules and seek immediate medical therapy [ see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.3) ].

Heart Failure and Edema

Advise patients to be alert for the symptoms of congestive heart failure including shortness of breath, unexplained weight gain, or edema and to contact their healthcare provider if such symptoms occur [ see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.5) ].

Anaphylactic Reactions

Inform patients of the signs of an anaphylactic reaction (e.g., difficulty breathing, swelling of the face or throat). Instruct patients to seek immediate emergency help if these occur [ see Contraindications ( 4) and Warnings and Precautions ( 5.7) ].

Serious Skin Reactions, including DRESS

Advise patients to stop taking indomethacin capsules immediately if they develop any type of rash or fever and to contact their healthcare provider as soon as possible [ see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.9, 5.10) ].

Female Fertility

Advise females of reproductive potential who desire pregnancy that NSAIDs, including indomethacin capsules, may be associated with a reversible delay in ovulation [ see Use in Specific Populations ( 8.3) ].

Fetal Toxicity

Inform pregnant women to avoid use of indomethacin capsules and other NSAIDs starting at 30 weeks gestation because of the risk of the premature closing of the fetal ductus arteriosus. If treatment with indomethacin capsules is needed for a pregnant woman between about 20 to 30 weeks gestation, advise her that she may need to be monitored for oligohydramnios, if treatment continues for longer than 48 hours [ see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.11) and Use in Specific Populations (8.1) ].

Avoid Concomitant Use of NSAIDs

Inform patients that the concomitant use of indomethacin capsules with other NSAIDs or salicylates (e.g., diflunisal, salsalate) is not recommended due to the increased risk of gastrointestinal toxicity, and little or no increase in efficacy [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2) and Drug Interactions ( 7) ]. Alert patients that NSAIDs may be present in “over the counter” medications for treatment of colds, fever, or insomnia.

Use of NSAIDs and Low-Dose Aspirin

Inform patients not to use low-dose aspirin concomitantly with indomethacin capsules until they talk to their healthcare provider [ see Drug Interactions ( 7) ].

Medication Guide available at

www.glenmarkpharma-us.com/medguides

Manufactured by:

Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Limited

Colvale-Bardez, Goa 403513, India

Manufactured for:

Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Inc., USA

Mahwah, NJ 07430

Questions? 1 (888) 721-7115

www.glenmarkpharma-us.com

March 2021

Medication Guide for Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)

What is the most important information I should know about medicines called Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)?

NSAIDs can cause serious side effects, including:

  • Increased risk of a heart attack or stroke that can lead to death. This risk may happen early in treatment and may increase:
    • with increasing doses of NSAIDs
    • with longer use of NSAIDs

Do not take NSAIDs right before or after a heart surgery called a “coronary artery bypass graft (CABG).”

Avoid taking NSAIDs after a recent heart attack, unless your healthcare provider tells you to. You may have an increased risk of another heart attack if you take NSAIDs after a recent heart attack.

  • Increased risk of bleeding, ulcers, and tears (perforation) of the esophagus (tube leading from the mouth to the stomach), stomach and intestines:
    • anytime during use
    • without warning symptoms
    • that may cause death

The risk of getting an ulcer or bleeding increases with:

  • past history of stomach ulcers, or stomach or intestinal bleeding with use of NSAIDs
  • taking medicines called “corticosteroids”, “anticoagulants”, “SSRIs”, or “SNRIs”
  • increasing doses of NSAIDs
  • older age
  • longer use of NSAIDs
  • poor health
  • smoking
  • advanced liver disease
  • drinking alcohol
  • bleeding problems

NSAIDs should only be used:

  • exactly as prescribed
  • at the lowest dose possible for your treatment
  • for the shortest time needed

What are NSAIDs?

NSAIDs are used to treat pain and redness, swelling, and heat (inflammation) from medical conditions such as different types of arthritis, menstrual cramps, and other types of short-term pain.

Who should not take NSAIDs?

Do not take NSAIDs:

  • if you have had an asthma attack, hives, or other allergic reaction with aspirin or any other NSAIDs.
  • right before or after heart bypass surgery.

Before taking NSAIDs, tell your healthcare provider about all of your medical conditions, including if you:

  • have liver or kidney problems
  • have high blood pressure
  • have asthma
  • are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. Taking NSAIDs at about 20 weeks of pregnancy or later may harm your unborn baby. If you need to take NSAIDs for more than 2 days when you are between 20 and 30 weeks of pregnancy, your healthcare provider may need to monitor the amount of fluid in your womb around your baby. You should not take NSAIDs after 30 weeks of pregnancy.
  • are breastfeeding or plan to breastfeed.

Tell your healthcare provider about all of the medicines you take, including prescription or over-the-counter medicines, vitamins or herbal supplements. NSAIDs and some other medicines can interact with each other and cause serious side effects. Do not start taking any new medicine without talking to your healthcare provider first.

What are the possible side effects of NSAIDs?

NSAIDs can cause serious side effects, including:

See “What is the most important information I should know about medicines called Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)?”

  • new or worse high blood pressure
  • heart failure
  • liver problems including liver failure
  • kidney problems including kidney failure
  • low red blood cells (anemia)
  • life-threatening skin reactions
  • life-threatening allergic reactions
  • Other side effects of NSAIDs include: stomach pain, constipation, diarrhea, gas, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, and dizziness.

Get emergency help right away if you get any of the following symptoms:

  • shortness of breath or trouble breathing
  • slurred speech
  • chest pain
  • swelling of the face or throat
  • weakness in one part or side of your body

Stop taking your NSAID and call your healthcare provider right away if you get any of the following symptoms:

  • nausea
  • more tired or weaker than usual
  • diarrhea
  • itching
  • your skin or eyes look yellow
  • indigestion or stomach pain
  • flu-like symptoms
  • vomit blood
  • there is blood in your bowel movement or it is black and sticky like tar
  • unusual weight gain
  • skin rash or blisters with fever
  • swelling of the arms, legs, hands and feet

If you take too much of your NSAID, call your healthcare provider or get medical help right away.

These are not all the possible side effects of NSAIDs. For more information, ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist about NSAIDs.

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Other information about NSAIDs

  • Aspirin is an NSAID but it does not increase the chance of a heart attack. Aspirin can cause bleeding in the brain, stomach, and intestines. Aspirin can also cause ulcers in the stomach and intestines.
  • Some NSAIDs are sold in lower doses without a prescription (over-the-counter). Talk to your healthcare provider before using over-the-counter NSAIDs for more than 10 days.

General information about the safe and effective use of NSAIDs

Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a Medication Guide. Do not use NSAIDs for a condition for which it was not prescribed. Do not give NSAIDs to other people, even if they have the same symptoms that you have. It may harm them.

If you would like more information about NSAIDs, talk with your healthcare provider. You can ask your pharmacist or healthcare provider for information about NSAIDs that is written for health professionals.

Medication Guide available at

www.glenmarkpharma-us.com/medguides

Manufactured by:

Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Limited

Colvale-Bardez, Goa 403513, India

Manufactured for:

Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Inc., USA

Mahwah, NJ 07430

Questions? 1 (888) 721-7115

www.glenmarkpharma-us.com

March 2021

This Medication Guide has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

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