In addition to the drugs included in Table 4, the interaction between INTELENCE and the following drugs were evaluated in clinical studies and no dose adjustment is needed for either drug [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]: didanosine, enfuvirtide (ENF), ethinylestradiol/norethindrone, omeprazole, paroxetine, raltegravir, ranitidine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate.
Pregnancy Exposure Registry
There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in individuals exposed to INTELENCE during pregnancy. Healthcare providers are encouraged to register patients by calling the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry (APR) at 1-800-258-4263.
Prospective pregnancy data from clinical trials and the APR are not sufficient to adequately assess the risk of major birth defects, miscarriage or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. Etravirine use during pregnancy has been evaluated in a limited number of individuals as reported by the APR, and available data show 1 birth defect in 66 first trimester exposures to etravirine-containing regimens (see Data).
The estimated background rate for major birth defects is 2.7% in the U.S. reference population of the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP). The rate of miscarriage is not reported in the APR. The estimated background rate of miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies in the U.S. general population is 15–20%. The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown.
In animal reproduction studies, no adverse developmental effects were observed with orally administered etravirine at exposures equivalent to those at the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 400 mg daily (see Data).
Based on prospective reports to the APR of 116 live births following exposure to etravirine-containing regimens during pregnancy (including 66 exposed in the first trimester and 38 exposed in the second/third trimester), the number of birth defects in live births for etravirine was 1 out of 66 with first trimester exposure and 0 out of 38 with second/third trimester exposure. Prospective reports from the APR of overall major birth defects in pregnancies exposed to INTELENCE is compared with a U.S. background major birth defect rate. Methodological limitations of the APR include the use of MACDP as the external comparator group. Limitations of using an external comparator include differences in methodology and populations, as well as confounding due to the underlying disease; these limitations preclude an accurate comparison of outcomes.
INTELENCE (200 mg twice daily) in combination with other antiretroviral agents was evaluated in a clinical trial enrolling 15 pregnant subjects during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy and postpartum. Thirteen subjects completed the trial through postpartum period (6–12 weeks after delivery). The pharmacokinetic data demonstrated that exposure to total etravirine was generally higher during pregnancy compared with postpartum [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Among subjects who were virologically suppressed (HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies/mL) at baseline (9/13), virologic suppression was maintained through the third trimester and postpartum period. Among subjects with HIV-1 RNA greater than 50 copies/mL and less than 400 copies/mL at baseline (3/13), viral loads remained less than 400 copies/mL. In one subject with HIV-1 RNA greater than 1,000 copies/mL at baseline (1/13), HIV-1 RNA remained greater than 1,000 copies/mL during the study period. Thirteen infants were born to 13 HIV-infected pregnant individuals in this study. HIV-1 test results were not available for 2 infants. Among the eleven infants with HIV-1 test results available, who were born to 11 HIV-infected pregnant individuals who completed the study, all had test results that were negative for HIV-1 at the time of delivery. No unexpected safety findings were observed compared with the known safety profile of INTELENCE in non-pregnant adults.
Reproductive and developmental toxicity studies were performed in rats (at 250, 500 and 1,000 mg/kg/day) and rabbits (at 125, 250 and 375 mg/kg/day) administered etravirine on gestation days 6 through 16, and 6 through 19, respectively. In both species, no treatment-related embryo-fetal effects were observed. In addition, no treatment-related effects were observed in a pre- and postnatal development study performed in rats administered oral doses up to 500 mg/kg/day on gestation days 7 through lactation day 7. The systemic drug exposures achieved at the high dose in these animal studies were equivalent to those at the MRHD.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that HIV-1-infected mothers not breastfeed their infants to avoid risking postnatal transmission of HIV.
Based on limited data, etravirine has been shown to be present in human breast milk. There are no data on the effects of etravirine on the breastfed infant, or the effects of etravirine on milk production.
Because of the potential for (1) HIV-1 transmission (in HIV-negative infants), (2) developing viral resistance (in HIV-positive infants) and (3) adverse reactions in breastfed infants similar to those seen in adults, instruct mothers not to breastfeed if they are receiving INTELENCE.
The safety and effectiveness of INTELENCE have been established for the treatment of HIV-infected pediatric patients from 2 years of age to less than 18 years [see Indications and Usage (1) and Dosage and Administration (2.3)]. Use of INTELENCE in pediatric patients 2 years to less than 18 years of age is supported by evidence from adequate and well-controlled studies of INTELENCE in adults with additional data from two Phase 2 trials in treatment-experienced pediatric subjects, TMC125-C213, 6 years to less than 18 years of age (N=101) and TMC125-C234/IMPAACT P1090, 2 years to less than 6 years of age (N=20). Both studies were open-label, single arm trials of etravirine plus an optimized background regimen. In clinical trials, the safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy were comparable to that observed in adults except for rash (greater than or equal to Grade 2) which was observed more frequently in pediatric subjects [see Adverse Reactions (6.1), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3), and Clinical Studies (14.2)]. Postmarketing reports of Stevens-Johnson syndrome in pediatric patients receiving INTELENCE have been reported [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1), and Adverse Reactions (6.2)].
Treatment with INTELENCE is not recommended in pediatric patients less than 2 years of age [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Five HIV-infected subjects from 1 year to < 2 years of age were enrolled in TMC125-C234/IMPAACT P1090. Etravirine exposure was lower than reported in HIV-infected adults (AUC12h geometric mean ratio [90% CI] was 0.59 [0.34, 1.01] for pediatric subjects from 1 year to < 2 years of age compared to adults). Virologic failure at Week 24 (confirmed HIV-RNA greater than or equal to 400 copies/mL) occurred in 3 of 4 evaluable subjects who discontinued before or had reached Week 24. Genotypic and phenotypic resistance to etravirine developed in 1 of the 3 subjects who experienced virologic failure.
Clinical studies of INTELENCE did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 years of age and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger subjects. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
No dose adjustment of INTELENCE is required in patients with mild (Child-Pugh Class A) or moderate (Child-Pugh Class B) hepatic impairment. The pharmacokinetics of INTELENCE have not been evaluated in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class C) [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Since the renal clearance of etravirine is negligible (less than 1.2%), a decrease in total body clearance is not expected in patients with renal impairment. No dose adjustments are required in patients with renal impairment. As etravirine is highly bound to plasma proteins, it is unlikely that it will be significantly removed by hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
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