INTRALIPID- soybean oil emulsion
Baxter Healthcare Corporation
A 20% I.V. Fat Emulsion
Intralipid ® 20% (A 20% Intravenous Fat Emulsion) is a sterile, non-pyrogenic fat emulsion prepared for intravenous administration as a source of calories and essential fatty acids. It is made up of 20% Soybean Oil, 1.2% Egg Yolk Phospholipids, 2.25% Glycerin, and Water for Injection. In addition, sodium hydroxide has been added to adjust the pH so that the final product pH is 8. pH range is 6 to 8.9.
The soybean oil is a refined natural product consisting of a mixture of neutral triglycerides of predominantly unsaturated fatty acids with the following structure:
where and are saturated and unsaturated fatty acid residues.
The major component fatty acids are linoleic acid (44-62%), oleic acid (19-30%), palmitic acid (7-14%), α-linolenic acid (4-11%) and stearic acid (1.4-5.5%). 1 These fatty acids have the following chemical and structural formulas:
|Linoleic acid C 18 H 32 O 2|
|Oleic acid C 18 H 34 O 2|
|Palmitic acid C 16 H 32 O 2|
|α-Linolenic acid C 18 H 30 O 2|
|Stearic acid C 18 H 36 O 2|
Purified egg phosphatides are a mixture of naturally occurring phospholipids which are isolated from the egg yolk. These phospholipids have the following general structure:
and contain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids that abound in neutral fats. R 3 is primarily either the choline or ethanolamine ester of phosphoric acid.
Glycerin is chemically designated C 3 H 8 O 3 and is a clear colorless, hygroscopic syrupy liquid. It has the following structural formula:
Intralipid ® 20% (A 20% Intravenous Fat Emulsion) has an osmolality of approximately 350 mOsmol/kg water (which represents 260 mOsmol/L of emulsion) and contains emulsified fat particles of approximately 0.5 micron size.
The total caloric value, including fat, phospholipid and glycerin, is 2.0 kcal per mL of Intralipid ® 20%. The phospholipids present contribute 47 milligrams or approximately 1.5 mmol of phosphorus per 100 mL of the emulsion.
The primary plastic container (Biofine™), is made from multilayered film specifically designed for parenteral nutrition drug products. The film is polypropylene based comprising three co-extruded layers. It contains no plasticizers and exhibits virtually no leachables. The container does not contain DEHP (di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate) or PVC. The container is nontoxic and biologically inert. This product is not made with natural rubber latex.
The container-emulsion unit is a closed system and is not dependent upon entry of external air during administration.
The container is overwrapped to provide protection from the physical environment and to provide an additional moisture barrier when necessary.
Intralipid ® 20% is metabolized and utilized as a source of energy causing an increase in heat production, decrease in respiratory quotient and increase in oxygen consumption. The infused fat particles are cleared from the blood stream in a manner thought to be comparable to the clearing of chylomicrons.
Intralipid ® 20% will prevent the biochemical lesions of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD), and correct the clinical manifestations of the EFAD syndrome.
Intralipid ® 20% is indicated as a source of calories and essential fatty acids for patients requiring parenteral nutrition for extended periods of time (usually for more than 5 days) and as a source of essential fatty acids for prevention of EFAD.
The administration of Intralipid ® 20% is contraindicated in patients with disturbances of normal fat metabolism such as pathologic hyperlipemia, lipoid nephrosis or acute pancreatitis if accompanied by hyperlipidemia.
Deaths in preterm infants after infusion of intravenous fat emulsion have been reported in the medical literature. 2 Autopsy findings included intravascular fat accumulation in the lungs. Treatment of premature and low birth weight infants with intravenous fat emulsion must be based upon careful benefit-risk assessment. Strict adherence to the recommended total daily dose is mandatory; hourly infusion rate should be as slow as possible in each case and should not in any case exceed 1 g fat/kg in four hours. Premature and small for gestational age infants have poor clearance of intravenous fat emulsion and increased free fatty acid plasma levels following fat emulsion infusion; therefore, serious consideration must be given to administration of less than the maximum recommended doses in these patients in order to decrease the likelihood of intravenous fat overload. The infant’s ability to eliminate the infused fat from the circulation must be carefully monitored (such as serum triglycerides and/or plasma free fatty acid levels). The lipemia must clear between daily infusions.
Caution should be exercised in administering of Intralipid ® 20% (A 20% Intravenous Fat Emulsion) to patients with severe liver damage, pulmonary disease, anemia or blood coagulation disorders, or when there is danger of fat embolism.
WARNING: This product contains aluminum that may be toxic. Aluminum may reach toxic levels with prolonged parenteral administration if kidney function is impaired. Premature neonates are particularly at risk because their kidneys are immature, and they require large amounts of calcium and phosphate solutions, which contain aluminum.
Research indicates that patients with impaired kidney function, including premature neonates, who receive parenteral levels of aluminum at greater than 4 to 5 mcg/kg/day accumulate aluminum at levels associated with central nervous system and bone toxicity. Tissue loading may occur at even lower rates of administration.
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