Additional adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of INVOKANA. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is generally not possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Acute Kidney Injury
Urosepsis and Pyelonephritis
Necrotizing Fasciitis of the Perineum (Fournier’s gangrene)
Co-administration of canagliflozin with rifampin, a nonselective inducer of several UGT enzymes, including UGT1A9, UGT2B4, decreased canagliflozin area under the curve (AUC) by 51%. This decrease in exposure to canagliflozin may decrease efficacy.
For patients with eGFR 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or greater, if an inducer of UGTs (e.g., rifampin, phenytoin, phenobarbital, ritonavir) is co-administered with INVOKANA, increase the dose to 200 mg (taken as two 100 mg tablets) once daily in patients currently tolerating INVOKANA 100 mg. The dose may be increased to 300 mg once daily in patients currently tolerating INVOKANA 200 mg and who require additional glycemic control.
For patients with eGFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 , if an inducer of UGTs (e.g., rifampin, phenytoin, phenobarbital, ritonavir) is co-administered with INVOKANA, increase the dose to 200 mg (taken as two 100 mg tablets) once daily in patients currently tolerating INVOKANA 100 mg. Consider adding another antihyperglycemic agent in patients who require additional glycemic control [see Dosage and Administration (2.3) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
There was an increase in the AUC and mean peak drug concentration (Cmax ) of digoxin (20% and 36%, respectively) when co-administered with INVOKANA 300 mg [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Patients taking INVOKANA with concomitant digoxin should be monitored appropriately.
Monitoring glycemic control with urine glucose tests is not recommended in patients taking SGLT2 inhibitors as SGLT2 inhibitors increase urinary glucose excretion and will lead to positive urine glucose tests. Use alternative methods to monitor glycemic control.
Monitoring glycemic control with 1,5-AG assay is not recommended as measurements of 1,5-AG are unreliable in assessing glycemic control in patients taking SGLT2 inhibitors. Use alternative methods to monitor glycemic control.
Based on animal data showing adverse renal effects, INVOKANA is not recommended during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy.
Limited data with INVOKANA in pregnant women are not sufficient to determine a drug-associated risk for major birth defects or miscarriage. There are risks to the mother and fetus associated with poorly controlled diabetes in pregnancy [see Clinical Considerations].
In animal studies, adverse renal pelvic and tubule dilatations that were not reversible were observed in rats when canagliflozin was administered during a period of renal development corresponding to the late second and third trimesters of human pregnancy, at an exposure 0.5-times the 300 mg clinical dose, based on AUC.
The estimated background risk of major birth defects is 6–10% in women with pre-gestational diabetes with a HbA1C >7 and has been reported to be as high as 20–25% in women with a HbA1C >10. The estimated background risk of miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2–4% and 15–20%, respectively.
Disease-associated maternal and/or embryo/fetal risk
Poorly controlled diabetes in pregnancy increases the maternal risk for diabetic ketoacidosis, pre-eclampsia, spontaneous abortions, preterm delivery, and delivery complications. Poorly controlled diabetes increases the fetal risk for major birth defects, stillbirth, and macrosomia related morbidity.
Canagliflozin dosed directly to juvenile rats from postnatal day (PND) 21 until PND 90 at doses of 4, 20, 65, or 100 mg/kg increased kidney weights and dose dependently increased the incidence and severity of renal pelvic and tubular dilatation at all doses tested. Exposure at the lowest dose was greater than or equal to 0.5-times the 300 mg clinical dose, based on AUC. These outcomes occurred with drug exposure during periods of renal development in rats that correspond to the late second and third trimester of human renal development. The renal pelvic dilatations observed in juvenile animals did not fully reverse within a 1-month recovery period.
In embryo-fetal development studies in rats and rabbits, canagliflozin was administered for intervals coinciding with the first trimester period of organogenesis in humans. No developmental toxicities independent of maternal toxicity were observed when canagliflozin was administered at doses up to 100 mg/kg in pregnant rats and 160 mg/kg in pregnant rabbits during embryonic organogenesis or during a study in which maternal rats were dosed from gestation day (GD) 6 through PND 21, yielding exposures up to approximately 19-times the 300 mg clinical dose, based on AUC.
There is no information regarding the presence of INVOKANA in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Canagliflozin is present in the milk of lactating rats [see Data]. Since human kidney maturation occurs in utero and during the first 2 years of life when lactational exposure may occur, there may be risk to the developing human kidney.
Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in a breastfed infant, advise women that use of INVOKANA is not recommended while breastfeeding.
Radiolabeled canagliflozin administered to lactating rats on day 13 post-partum was present at a milk/plasma ratio of 1.40, indicating that canagliflozin and its metabolites are transferred into milk at a concentration comparable to that in plasma. Juvenile rats directly exposed to canagliflozin showed a risk to the developing kidney (renal pelvic and tubular dilatations) during maturation.
Safety and effectiveness of INVOKANA in pediatric patients under 18 years of age have not been established.
In 13 clinical trials of INVOKANA, 2,294 patients 65 years and older, and 351 patients 75 years and older were exposed to INVOKANA [see Clinical Studies (14.1)].
Patients 65 years and older had a higher incidence of adverse reactions related to reduced intravascular volume with INVOKANA (such as hypotension, postural dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, syncope, and dehydration), particularly with the 300 mg daily dose, compared to younger patients; a more prominent increase in the incidence was seen in patients who were 75 years and older [see Dosage and Administration (2.1) and Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. Smaller reductions in HbA1C with INVOKANA relative to placebo were seen in older (65 years and older; -0.61% with INVOKANA 100 mg and -0.74% with INVOKANA 300 mg relative to placebo) compared to younger patients (-0.72% with INVOKANA 100 mg and -0.87% with INVOKANA 300 mg relative to placebo).
The efficacy and safety of INVOKANA for glycemic control were evaluated in a trial that included patients with moderate renal impairment (eGFR 30 to less than 50 mL/min/1.73 m2) [see Clinical Studies (14.1)]. These patients had less overall glycemic efficacy, and patients treated with 300 mg per day had increases in serum potassium, which were transient and similar by the end of study. Patients with renal impairment using INVOKANA for glycemic control may also be more likely to experience hypotension and may be at higher risk for acute kidney injury [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
Efficacy and safety studies with INVOKANA did not enroll patients with ESKD on dialysis or patients with an eGFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2. INVOKANA is contraindicated in patients with ESKD on dialysis [see Contraindications (4) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.1)].
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