IPRATROPIUM BROMIDE AND ALBUTEROL SULFATE (Page 2 of 5)

Animal Pharmacology/Toxicology

In 30-day studies in Sprague-Dawley rats and Beagle dogs, subcutaneous doses of up to 205.5 mcg/kg of ipratropium administered with up to 1000 mcg/kg albuterol in rats and 3.16 mcg/kg ipratropium and 15 mcg/kg albuterol in dogs (less than the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose for adults on a mg/m 2 basis) did not cause death or potentiation of the cardiotoxicity induced by albuterol administered alone.

Pharmacokinetics

In a double blind, double period, crossover study, 15 male and female subjects were administered single doses of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution or albuterol sulfate inhalation solution at two times the recommended single doses as two inhalations separated by 15 minutes. The total nebulized dose of albuterol sulfate from both treatments was 6 mg and the total dose of ipratropium bromide from Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution was 1 mg. Peak albuterol plasma concentrations occurred at 0.8 hours after dosing for both treatments. The mean peak albuterol concentration following administration of albuterol sulfate alone was 4.86 (± 2.65) mg/mL and it was 4.65 (± 2.92) mg/mL for Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution. Mean AUC values for the two treatments were 26.6 (± 15.2) ng∙hr/mL (albuterol sulfate alone) versus 24.2 (± 14.5) ng∙hr/mL (Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution). The mean t 1/2 values were 7.2 (± 1.3) hours (albuterol sulfate alone) and 6.7 (± 1.7) hours (Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution). A mean of 8.4 (± 8.9)% of the albuterol dose was excreted unchanged in urine following administration of two vials of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution which is similar to 8.8 (± 7.3)% that was obtained from albuterol sulfate inhalation solution. There were no statistically significant differences in the pharmacokinetics of albuterol between the two treatments. For ipratropium, a mean of 3.9 (± 5.1)% of the ipratropium bromide dose was excreted unchanged in urine following two vials of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution, which is comparable with previously reported data.

Clinical Trials

In a 12 week, randomized, double-blind, positive-control, crossover study of albuterol sulfate, ipratropium bromide, and Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution, 863 COPD patients were evaluated for bronchodilator efficacy comparing ipratropium bromide and albuterol sulfate with albuterol sulfate and ipratropium bromide alone.

Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution demonstrated significantly better changes in FEV 1 , as measured from baseline to peak response, when compared with either albuterol sulfate or ipratropium bromide. Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution was also shown to have the rapid onset associated with albuterol sulfate, with a mean time to peak FEV 1 of 1.5 hours, and the extended duration associated with ipratropium bromide with a duration of 15% response in FEV 1 of 4.3 hours.

Figure
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Figure 3. 1-3. Mean Change in FEV 1 — Measured on Day 14

This study demonstrated that each component of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution contributed to the improvement in pulmonary function, especially during the first 4 to 5 hours after dosing, and that Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution was significantly more effective than albuterol sulfate or ipratropium bromide alone.

IPRATROPIUM BROMIDE AND ALBUTEROL SULFATE Indications and Usage

Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution is indicated for the treatment of bronchospasm associated with COPD in patients requiring more than one bronchodilator.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution is contraindicated in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to any of its components, or to atropine and its derivatives.

WARNINGS

Paradoxical Bronchospasm

In the clinical study of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution, paradoxical bronchospasm was not observed. However, paradoxical bronchospasm has been observed with both inhaled ipratropium bromide and albuterol products and can be life-threatening. If this occurs, Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution should be discontinued immediately and alternative therapy instituted.

Do Not Exceed Recommended Dose

Fatalities have been reported in association with excessive use of inhaled products containing sympathomimetic amines and with the home use of nebulizers.

Cardiovascular Effect

Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution, like other beta adrenergic agonists, can produce a clinically significant cardiovascular effect in some patients as measured by pulse rate, blood pressure, and/or symptoms. Although such effects are uncommon for Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution at recommended doses, if they occur, the drug may need to be discontinued. In addition, beta agonists have been reported to produce ECG changes, such as flattening of the T-wave, prolongation of the QTc interval, and ST segment depression. The clinical significance of these findings is unknown. Therefore, Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution, like other sympathomimetic amines, should be used with caution in patients with cardiovascular disorders, especially coronary insufficiency, cardiac arrhythmias, and hypertension.

Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions

Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to albuterol and/or ipratropium bromide may occur after the administration of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution as demonstrated by rare cases of urticaria, angioedema, rash, pruritus, oropharyngeal edema, bronchospasm, and anaphylaxis.

PRECAUTIONS

General

1. Effects Seen with Sympathomimetic Drugs

As with all products containing sympathomimetic amines, Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution should be used with caution in patients with cardiovascular disorders, especially coronary insufficiency, cardiac arrhythmias, and hypertension; in patients with convulsive disorders, hyperthyroidism, or diabetes mellitus; and in patients who are unusually responsive to sympathomimetic amines. Large doses of intravenous albuterol have been reported to aggravate pre-existing diabetes mellitus and ketoacidosis. Additionally, β-agonists may cause a decrease in serum potassium in some patients, possibly through intracellular shunting. The decrease is usually transient, not requiring supplementation.

2. Effects Seen with Anticholinergic Drugs

Due to the presence of ipratropium bromide in Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution, it should be used with caution in patients with narrow-angle glaucoma, prostatic hypertrophy, or bladder-neck obstruction.

3. Use in Hepatic or Renal Diseases

Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution has not been studied in patients with hepatic or renal insufficiency. It should be used with caution in these patient populations.

Information for Patients

The action of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution should last up to 5 hours. Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution should not be used more frequently than recommended. Patients should be instructed not to increase the dose or frequency of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution without consulting their healthcare provider. If symptoms worsen, patients should be instructed to seek medical consultation.

Patients must avoid exposing their eyes to this product as temporary pupillary dilation, blurred vision, eye pain, or precipitation or worsening of narrow-angle glaucoma may occur, and therefore proper nebulizer technique should be assured, particularly if a mask is used.

If a patient becomes pregnant or begins nursing while on Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution, they should contact their healthcare provider about use of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution.

See the illustrated Patient’s Instruction for Use in the product package insert.

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