IPRATROPIUM BROMIDE AND ALBUTEROL SULFATE- albuterol sulfate and ipratropium bromide solution
Ritedose Pharmaceuticals, LLC
The active components in Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution are albuterol sulfate and ipratropium bromide.
Albuterol sulfate, is a salt of racemic albuterol and a relatively selective β 2 -adrenergic bronchodilator chemically described as α 1 -[( tert -butylamino)methyl]-4-hydroxy- m -xylene-α, α’-diol sulfate (2:1) (salt). It has a molecular weight of 576.7 and the empirical formula is (C 13 H 21 NO 3 ) 2 •H 2 SO 4 . It is a white crystalline powder, soluble in water and slightly soluble in ethanol. The World Health Organization recommended name for albuterol base is salbutamol.
Figure 3.1-1. Chemical structure of albuterol sulfate.
Ipratropium bromide is an anticholinergic bronchodilator chemically described as 8-azoniabicyclo [3.2.1]-octane, 3-(3-hydroxy-1-oxo-2-phenylpropoxy)-8methyl-8-(1-methylethyl)-, bromide, monohydrate ( endo, syn)-, (±)-; a synthetic quaternary ammonium compound, chemically related to atropine. It has a molecular weight of 430.4 and the empirical formula is C 20 H 30 BrNO 3 •H 2 O. It is a white crystalline substance, freely soluble in water and lower alcohols, and insoluble in lipophilic solvents such as ether, chloroform, and fluorocarbons.
Figure 3.1-2. Chemical structure of ipratropium bromide.
Each 3 mL Sterile Unit-dose Vial contains 0.5 mg of ipratropium bromide (0.017%) and 3 mg 1 albuterol sulfate (0.083%) in an isotonic, sterile, aqueous solution containing sodium chloride and 1 N hydrochloric acid to adjust to pH 4.
Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution is a clear, colorless solution. It does not require dilution prior to administration by nebulization. For Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution, like all other nebulized treatments, the amount delivered to the lungs will depend on patient factors, the jet nebulizer utilized, and compressor performance. Using the Pari-LC-Plus™ nebulizer (with face mask or mouthpiece) connected to a PRONEB™ compressor system, under in vitro conditions, the mean delivered dose from the mouth piece (% nominal dose) was approximately 46% of albuterol and 42% of ipratropium bromide at a mean flow rate of 3.6 L/min. The mean nebulization time was 15 minutes or less. Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution should be administered from jet nebulizers at adequate flow rates, via face masks or mouthpieces (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
- Equivalent to 2.5 mg albuterol base
Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution is a combination of the β 2 -adrenergic bronchodilator, albuterol sulfate, and the anticholinergic bronchodilator, ipratropium bromide.
The prime action of β-adrenergic drugs is to stimulate adenyl cyclase, the enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cyclic-3′,5′-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) from adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The cAMP thus formed mediates the cellular responses. In vitro studies and in vivo pharmacologic studies have demonstrated that albuterol has a preferential effect on β 2 -adrenergic receptors compared with isoproterenol. While it is recognized that β 2 -adrenergic receptors are the predominant receptors in bronchial smooth muscle, recent data indicated that 10% to 50% of the β-receptors in the human heart may be β 2 -receptors. The precise function of these receptors, however, is not yet established. Albuterol has been shown in most controlled clinical trials to have more effect on the respiratory tract, in the form of bronchial smooth muscle relaxation, than isoproterenol at comparable doses while producing fewer cardiovascular effects. Controlled clinical studies and other clinical experience have shown that inhaled albuterol, like other β-adrenergic agonist drugs, can produce a significant cardiovascular effect in some patients.
Albuterol sulfate is longer acting than isoproterenol in most patients by any route of administration, because it is not a substrate for the cellular uptake processes for catecholamine nor for the metabolism of catechol-O-methyl transferase. Instead the drug is conjugatively metabolized to albuterol 4′- O -sulfate.
Intravenous studies in rats with albuterol sulfate have demonstrated that albuterol crosses the blood-brain barrier and reaches brain concentrations amounting to approximately 5% of plasma concentrations. In structures outside of the blood-brain barrier (pineal and pituitary glands), albuterol concentrations were found to be 100 times those found in whole brain.
Studies in laboratory animals (minipigs, rodents, and dogs) have demonstrated the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death (with histological evidence of myocardial necrosis) when beta-agonists and methyl-xanthines are administered concurrently. The clinical significance of these findings is unknown.
Ipratropium bromide is an anticholinergic (parasympatholytic) agent, which blocks the muscarinic receptors of acetylcholine, and, based on animal studies, appears to inhibit vagally mediated reflexes by antagonizing the action of acetylcholine, the transmitter agent released from the vagus nerve. Anticholinergics prevent the increases in intracellular concentration of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), resulting from the interaction of acetylcholine with the muscarinic receptors of bronchial smooth muscle.
The bronchodilation following inhalation of ipratropium is primarily a local, site-specific effect, not a systemic one. Much of an inhaled dose is swallowed as shown by fecal excretion studies. Following nebulization of a 1-mg dose to healthy volunteers, a mean of 4% of the dose was excreted unchanged in the urine.
Ipratropium bromide is minimally (0% to 9% in vitro) bound to plasma albumin and α 1 -acid glycoproteins. It is partially metabolized to inactive ester hydrolysis products. Following intravenous administration, approximately one-half is excreted unchanged in the urine. The half-life of elimination is about 1.6 hours after intravenous administration. Ipratropium bromide that reaches the systemic circulation is reportedly removed by the kidneys rapidly at a rate that exceeds the glomerular filtration rate. The pharmacokinetics of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution or ipratropium bromide have not been studied in the elderly and in patients with hepatic or renal insufficiency (see PRECAUTIONS).
Autoradiographic studies in rats have shown that ipratropium does not penetrate the blood-brain barrier.
Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution is expected to maximize the response to treatment in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by reducing bronchospasm through two distinctly different mechanisms: sympathomimetic (albuterol sulfate) and anticholinergic/parasympatholytic (ipratropium bromide). Simultaneous administration of both an anticholinergic and a β2-sympathomimetic is designed to produce greater bronchodilation effects than when either drug is utilized alone at its recommended dosage.
In 30-day studies in Sprague-Dawley rats and Beagle dogs, subcutaneous doses of up to 205.5 mcg/kg of ipratropium administered with up to 1000 mcg/kg albuterol in rats and 3.16 mcg/kg ipratropium and 15 mcg/kg albuterol in dogs (less than the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose for adults on a mg/m 2 basis) did not cause death or potentiation of the cardiotoxicity induced by albuterol administered alone.
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