Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate (Page 2 of 4)

ANIMAL PHARMACOLOGY & OR TOXICOLOGY

Albuterol Sulfate

Intravenous studies in rats with albuterol sulfate have demonstrated that albuterol crosses the blood-brain barrier and reaches brain concentrations amounting to approximately 5% of plasma concentrations. In structures outside of the blood-brain barrier (pineal and pituitary glands), albuterol concentrations were found to be 100 times those found in whole brain.

Studies in laboratory animals (minipigs, rodents, and dogs) have demonstrated the occurrence of cardiac arrythmias and sudden death (with histological evidence of myocardial necrosis) when beta-agonists and methylxanthines are administered concurrently. The clinical significance of these findings is unknown.

Ipratropium Bromide

Autoradiographic studies in rats have shown that ipratropium does not penetrate the blood-brain barrier.

Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution

In 30-day studies in Sprague-Dawley rats and Beagle dogs, subcutaneous doses of up to 205.5 mcg/kg of ipratropium administered with up to 1000 mcg/kg albuterol in rats and 3.16 mcg/kg ipratropium and 15 mcg/kg albuterol in dogs (less than the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose for adults on a mg/m 2 basis) did not cause death or potentiation of the cardiotoxicity induced by albuterol administered alone.

CLINICAL STUDIES

In a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, positive-control, crossover study of albuterol sulfate, ipratropium bromide and Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution, 863 COPD patients were evaluated for bronchodilator efficacy comparing Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution with albuterol sulfate and ipratropium bromide alone.

Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution demonstrated significantly better changes in FEV 1 , as measured from the baseline to peak response, when compared with either albuterol sulfate or ipratropium bromide.

Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution was also shown to have the rapid onset associated with albuterol sulfate, with a mean time to peak FEV 1 of 1.5 hours, and the extended duration associated with ipratropium bromide with a duration of 15% response in FEV 1 of 4.3 hours.

b5387e98-figure-03
(click image for full-size original)

This study demonstrated that each component of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution contributed to the improvement in pulmonary function, especially during the first 4 to 5 hours after dosing, and that Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution was significantly more effective than albuterol sulfate or ipratropium bromide alone.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution is indicated for the treatment of bronchospasm associated with COPD in patients requiring more than one bronchodilator.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution is contraindicated in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to any of its components, or to atropine and its derivatives.

WARNINGS

PARADOXICAL BRONCHOSPASM

In the clinical study of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution, paradoxical bronchospasm was not observed. However, paradoxical bronchospasm has been observed with both inhaled ipratropium bromide and albuterol products and can be life-threatening. If this occurs, Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution should be discontinued immediately and alternative therapy instituted.

DO NOT EXCEED RECOMMENDED DOSE

Fatalities have been reported in association with excessive use of inhaled products containing sympathomimetic amines and with the home use of nebulizers.

CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS

Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution, like other beta-adrenergic agonists, can produce a clinically significant cardiovascular effect in some patients as measured by pulse rate, blood pressure, and/or symptoms. Although such effects are uncommon for Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution at recommended doses, if they occur, the drug may need to be discontinued. In addition, beta-agonists have been reported to produce ECG changes, such as flattening of the T-wave, prolongation of the QTc interval, and ST segment depression. The clinical significance of these findings is unknown. Therefore, Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution, like other sympathomimetic amines, should be used with caution in patients with cardiovascular disorders, especially coronary insufficiency, cardiac arrhythmias, and hypertension.

IMMEDIATE HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS

Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to albuterol and/or ipratropium bromide may occur after the administration of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution as demonstrated by rare cases of urticaria, angioedema, rash, pruritis, oropharyngeal edema, bronchospasm, and anaphylaxis.

PRECAUTIONS

General

1. Effects Seen with Sympathomimetic Drugs

As with all products containing sympathomimetic amines, Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution should be used with caution in patients with cardiovascular disorders, especially coronary insufficiency, cardiac arrhythmias, and hypertension; in patients with convulsive disorders, hyperthyroidism, or diabetes mellitus; and in patients who are unusually responsive to sympathomimetic amines. Large doses of intravenous albuterol have been reported to aggravate pre-existing diabetes mellitus and ketoacidosis. Additionally, β-agonists may cause a decrease in serum potassium in some patients, possibly through intracellular shunting. The decrease is usually transient, not requiring supplementation.

2. Effects Seen with Anticholinergic Drugs

Due to the presence of ipratropium bromide in Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution, it should be used with caution in patients with narrow-angle glaucoma, prostatic hypertrophy, or bladder-neck obstruction.

3. Use in Hepatic or Renal Diseases

Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution has not been studied in patients with hepatic or renal insufficiency. It should be used with caution in these patient populations.

Information for Patients

The action of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution should last up to 5 hours. Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution should not be used more frequently than recommended. Patients should be instructed not to increase the dose or frequency of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution without consulting their healthcare provider. If symptoms worsen, patients should be instructed to seek medical consultation.

Patients must avoid exposing their eyes to this product as temporary pupillary dilation, blurred vision, eye pain, or precipitation or worsening of narrow-angle glaucoma may occur, and therefore proper nebulizer technique should be assured, particularly if a mask is used.

If a patient becomes pregnant or begins nursing while on Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution, they should contact their healthcare provider about use of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution.

See the illustrated Patient’s Instruction for Use in the product package insert.

Repackaged By / Distributed By: RemedyRepack Inc.

625 Kolter Drive, Indiana, PA 15701

(724) 465-8762

Drug Interactions

Anticholinergic agents

Although ipratropium bromide is minimally absorbed into the systemic circulation, there is some potential for an additive interaction with concomitantly used anticholinergic medications. Caution is, therefore, advised in the co-administration of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution with other drugs having anticholinergic properties.

β-adrenergic agents

Caution is advised in the co-administration of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution and other sympathomimetic agents due to the increased risk of adverse cardiovascular effects.

All MedLibrary.org resources are included in as near-original form as possible, meaning that the information from the original provider has been rendered here with only typographical or stylistic modifications and not with any substantive alterations of content, meaning or intent.

This site is provided for educational and informational purposes only, in accordance with our Terms of Use, and is not intended as a substitute for the advice of a medical doctor, nurse, nurse practitioner or other qualified health professional.

Privacy Policy | Copyright © 2021. All Rights Reserved.