Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate (Page 3 of 4)

β-receptor blocking agents

These agents and albuterol sulfate inhibit the effect of each other. β-receptor blocking agents should be used with caution in patients with hyperreactive airways, and if used, relatively selective β 1 selective agents are recommended.

Diuretics

The electrocardiogram (ECG) changes and/or hypokalemia that may result from the administration of non-potassium sparing diuretics (such as loop or thiazide diuretics) can be acutely worsened by β-agonists, especially when the recommended dose of the β-agonist is exceeded. Although the clinical significance of these effects is not known, caution is advised in the coadministration of β-agonist-containing drugs, such as Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution, with non-potassium sparing diuretics.

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors or Tricyclic Antidepressants

Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution should be administered with extreme caution to patients being treated with monoamine oxidase inhibitors or tricyclic antidepressants, or within 2 weeks of discontinuation of such agents because the action of albuterol sulfate on the cardiovascular system may be potentiated.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Albuterol sulfate

In a 2-year study in Sprague-Dawley rats, albuterol sulfate caused a significant dose-related increase in the incidence of benign leiomyomas of the mesovarium at and above dietary doses of 2 mg/kg (approximately equal to the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose for adults on a mg/m 2 basis). In another study, this effect was blocked by the co-administration of propranolol, a non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist.

In an 18-month study in CD-1 mice, albuterol sulfate showed no evidence of tumorigenicity at dietary doses up to 500 mg/kg (approximately 140 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose for adults on a mg/m 2 basis). In a 22-month study in Golden hamsters, albuterol sulfate showed no evidence of tumorigenicity at dietary doses up to 50 mg/kg (approximately 20 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose for adults on a mg/m 2 basis).

Albuterol sulfate was not mutagenic in the Ames test or a mutation test in yeast. Albuterol sulfate was not clastogenic in a human peripheral lymphocyte assay or in an AH 1 strain mouse micronucleus assay.

Reproduction studies in rats demonstrated no evidence of impaired fertility at oral doses of albuterol sulfate up to 50 mg/kg (approximately 25 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose for adults on a mg/m 2 basis).

Ipratropium bromide

In 2-year studies in Sprague-Dawley rats and CD-1 mice, ipratropium bromide showed no evidence of tumorigenicity at oral doses up to 6 mg/kg (approximately 15 times and 8 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose for adults in rats and mice, respectively, on a mg/m 2 basis).

Ipratropium bromide was not mutagenic in the Ames test and mouse dominant lethal test. Ipratropium bromide was not clastogenic in a mouse micronucleus assay.

A reproduction study in rats demonstrated decreased conception and increased resorptions when ipratropium bromide was administered orally at a dose of 90 mg/kg (approximately 240 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose for adults on a mg/m 2 basis). These effects were not seen with a dose of 50 mg/kg (approximately 140 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose for adults on a mg/m 2 basis).

Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects

Albuterol sulfate
Pregnancy Category C

Albuterol sulfate has been shown to be teratogenic in mice. A study in CD-1 mice given albuterol sulfate subcutaneously showed cleft palate formation in 5 of 111 (4.5%) fetuses at 0.25 mg/kg (less than the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose for adults on a mg/m 2 basis) and in 10 of 108 (9.3%) fetuses at 2.5 mg/kg (approximately equal to the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose for adults on a mg/m 2 basis). The drug did not induce cleft palate formation when administered subcutaneously at a dose of 0.025 mg/kg (less than the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose for adults on a mg/m 2 basis). Cleft palate formation also occurred in 22 of 72 (30.5%) fetuses from females treated subcutaneously with 2.5 mg/kg isoproterenol (positive control).

A reproduction study in Stride rabbits revealed cranioschisis in 7 of 19 (37%) fetuses when albuterol was administered orally at a dose of 50 mg/kg (approximately 55 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose for adults on mg/m 2 basis).

A study in which pregnant rats were dosed with radiolabeled albuterol sulfate demonstrated that drug-related material is transferred from the maternal circulation to the fetus.

During worldwide marketing experience, various congenital anomalies, including cleft palate and limb defects, have been reported in the offspring of patients being treated with albuterol. Some of the mothers were taking multiple medications during their pregnancies. Because no consistent pattern of defects can be discerned, a relationship between albuterol use and congenital anomalies has not been established.

Ipratropium bromide
Pregnancy Category B

Reproduction studies in CD-1 mice, Sprague-Dawley rats and New Zealand rabbits demonstrated no evidence of teratogenicity at oral doses up to 10, 100, and 125 mg/kg, respectively (approximately 15, 270, and 680 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose for adults on a mg/m 2 basis). Reproduction studies in rats and rabbits demonstrated no evidence of teratogenicity at inhalation doses up to 1.5 and 1.8 mg/kg, respectively (approximately 4 and 10 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose for adults on a mg/m 2 basis). There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of the use of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution, albuterol sulfate, or ipratropium bromide in pregnant women. Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Labor and Delivery

Oral albuterol sulfate has been shown to delay preterm labor in some reports. Because of the potential of albuterol to interfere with uterine contractility, use of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution during labor should be restricted to those patients in whom the benefits clearly outweigh the risks.

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether the components of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution are excreted in human milk. Although lipid-insoluble quaternary bases pass into breast milk, it is unlikely that ipratropium bromide would reach the infant to an important extent, especially when taken as a nebulized solution. Because of the potential for tumorigenicity shown for albuterol sulfate in some animals, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Pediatric Use

The safety and effectiveness of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution in patients below 18 years of age have not been established.

Geriatric Use

Of the total number of subjects in clinical studies of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution, 62 percent were 65 and over, while 19 percent were 75 and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

Adverse reaction information concerning Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution was derived from the 12-week controlled clinical trial.

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Additional adverse reactions reported in more than 1% of patients treated with Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution included constipation and voice alterations.

In the clinical trial, there was a 0.3% incidence of possible allergic-type reactions, including skin rash, pruritis, and urticaria.

Additional information derived from the published literature on the use of albuterol sulfate and ipratropium bromide singly or in combination includes precipitation or worsening of narrow-angle glaucoma, acute eye pain, blurred vision, mydriasis, paradoxical bronchospasm, wheezing, exacerbation of COPD symptoms, drowsiness, aching, flushing, upper respiratory tract infection, palpitations, taste perversion, elevated heart rate, sinusitis, back pain, sore throat and metabolic acidosis. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

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