Irbesartan (Page 2 of 5)

6.2 Post-Marketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of irbesartan. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to estimate reliably their frequency or to establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Urticaria; angioedema (involving swelling of the face, lips, pharynx, and/or tongue); anaphylactic reaction including anaphylactic shock; increased liver function tests; jaundice; hepatitis; hyperkalemia; thrombocytopenia; increased CPK; tinitus.

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

7.1 Agents Increasing Serum Potassium

Coadministration of irbesartan with other drugs that raise serum potassium levels may result in hyperkalemia, sometimes severe. Monitor serum potassium in such patients.

7.2 Lithium

Increases in serum lithium concentrations and lithium toxicity have been reported with concomitant use of irbesartan and lithium. Monitor lithium levels in patients receiving irbesartan and lithium.

7.3 Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) Including Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors (COX-2 Inhibitors)

In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function, co-administration of NSAIDs, including selective COX-2 inhibitors, with angiotensin II receptor antagonists (including irbesartan) may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Monitor renal function periodically in patients receiving irbesartan and NSAID therapy.
The antihypertensive effect of angiotensin II receptor antagonists, including irbesartan, may be attenuated by NSAIDs including selective COX-2 inhibitors.

7.4 Dual Blockade of the Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS)

Dual blockade of the RAS with angiotensin receptor blockers, ACE inhibitors, or aliskiren is associated with increased risks of hypotension, hyperkalemia, and changes in renal function (including acute renal failure) compared to monotherapy. Most patients receiving the combination of two RAS inhibitors do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. In general, avoid combined use of RAS inhibitors. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function and electrolytes in patients on irbesartan and other agents that affect the RAS.
Do not co-administer aliskiren with irbesartan in patients with diabetes. Avoid use of aliskiren with irbesartan in patients with renal impairment (GFR <60 mL/min).

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category D
Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy reduces fetal renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death. Resulting oligohydramnios can be associated with fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal deformations. Potential neonatal adverse effects include skull hypoplasia, anuria, hypotension, renal failure, and death. When pregnancy is detected, discontinue irbesartan as soon as possible. These adverse outcomes are usually associated with use of these drugs in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Most epidemiologic studies examining fetal abnormalities after exposure to antihypertensive use in the first trimester have not distinguished drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system from other antihypertensive agents. Appropriate management of maternal hypertension during pregnancy is important to optimize outcomes for both mother and fetus.
In the unusual case that there is no appropriate alternative to therapy with drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system for a particular patient, apprise the mother of the potential risk to the fetus. Perform serial ultrasound examinations to assess the intra-amniotic environment. If oligohydramnios is observed, discontinue irbesartan, unless it is considered lifesaving for the mother. Fetal testing may be appropriate, based on the week of pregnancy. Patients and physicians should be aware, however, that oligohydramnios may not appear until after the fetus has sustained irreversible injury. Closely observe infants with histories of in utero exposure to irbesartan for hypotension, oliguria, and hyperkalemia [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)].
Irbesartan crosses the placenta in rats and rabbits. In pregnant rats given irbesartan at doses greater than the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD), fetuses showed increased incidences of renal pelvic cavitation, hydroureter and/or absence of renal papilla. Subcutaneous edema also occurred in fetuses at doses about 4 times the MRHD (based on body surface area). These anomalies occurred when pregnant rats received irbesartan through Day 20 of gestation but not when drug was stopped on gestation Day 15. The observed effects are believed to be late gestational effects of the drug. Pregnant rabbits given oral doses of irbesartan equivalent to 1.5 times the MRHD experienced a high rate of maternal mortality and abortion. Surviving females had a slight increase in early resorptions and a corresponding decrease in live fetuses [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.2)].
Radioactivity was present in the rat and rabbit fetus during late gestation and in rat milk following oral doses of radiolabeled irbesartan.

8.3 Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether irbesartan is excreted in human milk, but irbesartan or some metabolite of irbesartan is secreted at low concentration in the milk of lactating rats. Because of the potential for adverse effects on the nursing infant, discontinue nursing or discontinue irbesartan.

8.4 Pediatric Use

In infants with histories of in utero exposure to an angiotensin II receptor antagonist observe for hypotension, oliguria, and hyperkalemia. If oliguria occurs, support blood pressure and renal perfusion. Exchange transfusion or dialysis may be required as means of reversing hypotension and/or substituting for disordered renal function.
Irbesartan, in a study at a dose of up to 4.5 mg/kg/day, once daily, did not appear to lower blood pressure effectively in pediatric patients ages 6 to 16 years.
Irbesartan has not been studied in pediatric patients less than 6 years old.

8.5 Geriatric Use

Of 4925 subjects receiving irbesartan in controlled clinical studies of hypertension, 911 (18.5%) were 65 years and over, while 150 (3.0%) were 75 years and over. No overall differences in effectiveness or safety were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. [See Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) and Clinical Studies (14.1).]

10 OVERDOSAGE

No data are available in regard to overdosage in humans. However, daily doses of 900 mg for 8 weeks were well-tolerated. The most likely manifestations of overdosage are expected to be hypotension and tachycardia; bradycardia might also occur from overdose. Irbesartan is not removed by hemodialysis.
Acute oral toxicity studies with irbesartan in mice and rats indicated acute lethal doses were in excess of 2000 mg/kg, about 25- and 50-fold the MRHD (300 mg) on a mg/m2 basis, respectively.

11 DESCRIPTION

Irbesartan USP is an angiotensin II receptor (AT1 subtype) antagonist.
Irbesartan USP is a non-peptide compound, chemically described as a 2-butyl-3-[p-(o-1H -tetrazol-5-ylphenyl)benzyl]-1,3-diazaspiro[4.4]non-1-en-4-one.
Its empirical formula is C25 H28 N6 O, and the structural formula:

image1

Irbesartan USP is a white to off-white crystalline powder with a molecular weight of 428.5. It is a nonpolar compound with a partition coefficient (octanol/water) of 10.1 at pH of 7.4. Irbesartan is slightly soluble in alcohol and methylene chloride and practically insoluble in water.
Irbesartan is available for oral administration in unscored tablets containing 75 mg, 150 mg, or 300 mg of Irbesartan USP. Inactive ingredients include: calcium stearate, carboxy methyl cellulose calcium, colloidal silicon dioxide, microcrystalline cellulose and povidone.

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

Angiotensin II is a potent vasoconstrictor formed from angiotensin I in a reaction catalyzed by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE, kininase II). Angiotensin II is the primary vasoactive hormone of the renin-angiotensin system, and an important component in the pathophysiology of hypertension. It also stimulates aldosterone secretion by the adrenal cortex. Irbesartan blocks the vasoconstrictor and aldosterone-secreting effects of angiotensin II by selectively binding to the AT1 angiotensin II receptor found in many tissues (e.g., vascular smooth muscle, adrenal gland). There is also an AT2 receptor in many tissues, but it is not involved in cardiovascular homeostasis.
Irbesartan is a specific competitive antagonist of AT1 receptors with a much greater affinity (more than 8500-fold) for the AT1 receptor than for the AT2 receptor and no agonist activity.
Blockade of the AT1 receptor removes the negative feedback of angiotensin II on renin secretion, but the resulting increased plasma renin activity and circulating angiotensin II do not overcome the effects of irbesartan on blood pressure.
Irbesartan does not inhibit ACE or renin or affect other hormone receptors or ion channels known to be involved in the cardiovascular regulation of blood pressure and sodium homeostasis.

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