Irbesartan and Hydrochlorothiazide (Page 2 of 7)

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

  • Irbesartan and hydrochlorothiazide tablets are contraindicated in patients who are hypersensitive to any component of this product.
  • Because of the hydrochlorothiazide component, this product is contraindicated in patients with anuria or hypersensitivity to other sulfonamide-derived drugs.
  • Do not coadminister aliskiren with irbesartan and hydrochlorothiazide tablets in patients with diabetes [ see Drug Interactions ( 7) ].

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Fetal Toxicity

Pregnancy Category D

Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy reduces fetal renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death. Resulting oligohydramnios can be associated with fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal deformations. Potential neonatal adverse effects include skull hypoplasia, anuria, hypotension, renal failure, and death. When pregnancy is detected, discontinue irbesartan and hydrochlorothiazide as soon as possible [ see Use in Specific Populations (8.1) ].

Thiazides cross the placenta, and use of thiazides during pregnancy is associated with a risk of fetal or neonatal jaundice, thrombocytopenia, and possibly other adverse reactions that have occurred in adults.

5.2 Hypotension in Volume or Salt-Depleted Patients

Excessive reduction of blood pressure was rarely seen in patients with uncomplicated hypertension treated with irbesartan alone (< 0.1%) or with irbesartan-hydrochlorothiazide (approximately 1%). Initiation of antihypertensive therapy may cause symptomatic hypotension in patients with intravascular volume or sodium-depletion, e.g., in patients treated vigorously with diuretics or in patients on dialysis. Such volume depletion should be corrected prior to administration of antihypertensive therapy.

If hypotension occurs, the patient should be placed in the supine position and, if necessary, given an intravenous infusion of normal saline. A transient hypotensive response is not a contraindication to further treatment, which usually can be continued without difficulty once the blood pressure has stabilized.

5.3 Hypersensitivity Reaction

Hydrochlorothiazide

Hypersensitivity reactions to hydrochlorothiazide may occur in patients with or without a history of allergy or bronchial asthma, but are more likely in patients with such a history.

5.4 Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Hydrochlorothiazide

Thiazide diuretics have been reported to cause exacerbation or activation of systemic lupus erythematosus.

5.5 Electrolyte and Metabolic Imbalances

Irbesartan-Hydrochlorothiazide

In double-blind clinical trials of various doses of irbesartan and hydrochlorothiazide, the incidence of hypertensive patients who developed hypokalemia (serum potassium < 3.5 mEq/L) was 7.5% versus 6.0% for placebo; the incidence of hyperkalemia (serum potassium > 5.7 mEq/L) was < 1.0% versus 1.7% for placebo. No patient discontinued due to increases or decreases in serum potassium. On average, the combination of irbesartan and hydrochlorothiazide had no effect on serum potassium. Higher doses of irbesartan ameliorated the hypokalemic response to hydrochlorothiazide.

Coadministration of irbesartan and hydrochlorothiazide tablets with potassium sparing diuretics, potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes or other drugs that raise serum potassium levels may result in hyperkalemia, sometimes severe. Monitor serum potassium in such patients.

Hydrochlorothiazide

Hydrochlorothiazide can cause hypokalemia and hyponatremia. Hypomagnesemia can result in hypokalemia which appears difficult to treat despite potassium repletion. Drugs that inhibit the renin-angiotensin system can cause hyperkalemia. Monitor serum electrolytes periodically.

Hyperuricemia may occur or frank gout may be precipitated in certain patients receiving thiazide therapy.

Hydrochlorothiazide may alter glucose tolerance and raise serum levels of cholesterol and triglycerides.

The antihypertensive effects of the drug may be enhanced in the post-sympathectomy patient.

Thiazides may decrease urinary calcium excretion. Thiazides may cause intermittent and slight elevation of serum calcium in the absence of known disorders of calcium metabolism. Marked hypercalcemia may be evidence of hidden hyperparathyroidism. Thiazides should be discontinued before carrying out tests for parathyroid function.

5.6 Hepatic Impairment

Hydrochlorothiazide

Thiazides should be used with caution in patients with impaired hepatic function or progressive liver disease, since minor alterations of fluid and electrolyte balance may precipitate hepatic coma.

5.7 Impaired Renal Function

As a consequence of inhibiting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, changes in renal function may be anticipated in susceptible individuals [ see Drug Interactions ( 7) ]. In patients whose renal function may depend on the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (e.g., patients with severe congestive heart failure), treatment with ACE inhibitors has been associated with oliguria and/or progressive azotemia and (rarely) with acute renal failure and/or death. Irbesartan would be expected to behave similarly. In studies of ACE inhibitors in patients with unilateral or bilateral renal artery stenosis, increases in serum creatinine or BUN have been reported. There has been no known use of irbesartan in patients with unilateral or bilateral renal artery stenosis, but a similar effect should be anticipated.

Thiazides should be used with caution in severe renal disease. In patients with renal disease, thiazides may precipitate azotemia. Cumulative effects of the drug may develop in patients with impaired renal function.

5.8 Secondary Acute Angle-Closure Glaucoma and/or Acute Myopia

Hydrochlorothiazide

Sulfonamide or sulfonamide derivative drugs, such as hydrochlorothiazide, can cause an idiosyncratic reaction, resulting in transient myopia and/or acute angle-closure glaucoma. Cases of acute angle-closure glaucoma have been reported with hydrochlorothiazide. Symptoms include acute onset of decreased visual acuity or ocular pain and typically occur within hours to weeks of drug initiation. Untreated acute angle-closure glaucoma can lead to permanent vision loss. The primary treatment is to discontinue drug intake as rapidly as possible. Prompt medical or surgical treatments may need to be considered if the intraocular pressure remains uncontrolled. Risk factors for developing acute angle-closure glaucoma may include a history of sulfonamide or penicillin allergy.

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. The adverse reaction information from clinical trials does, however, provide a basis for identifying the adverse events that appear to be related to drug use and for approximating rates.

Irbesartan-Hydrochlorothiazide

Irbesartan and hydrochlorothiazide tablets have been evaluated for safety in 1694 patients treated for essential hypertension in 6 clinical trials. In Studies I through IV with irbesartan and hydrochlorothiazide, no adverse events peculiar to this combination drug product have been observed. Adverse events have been limited to those that were reported previously with irbesartan or hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ). The overall incidence of adverse events was similar with the combination and placebo. In general, treatment with irbesartan and hydrochlorothiazide was well tolerated. For the most part, adverse events have been mild and transient in nature and have not required discontinuation of therapy. In controlled clinical trials, discontinuation of irbesartan and hydrochlorothiazide therapy due to clinical adverse events was required in only 3.6%. This incidence was significantly less (p = 0.023) than the 6.8% of patients treated with placebo who discontinued therapy.

In these double-blind controlled clinical trials, the following adverse events reported with irbesartan and hydrochlorothiazide occurred in ≥ 1% of patients, and more often on the irbesartan-hydrochlorothiazide combination than on placebo, regardless of drug relationship:

Irbesartan/HCTZ

Placebo

Irbesartan

HCTZ

(n = 898)

(n = 236)

(n = 400)

(n = 380)

(%)

(%)

(%)

(%)

Body as a Whole

Chest Pain

2

1

2

2

Fatigue

6

3

4

3

Influenza

3

1

2

2

Cardiovascular

Edema

3

3

2

2

Tachycardia

1

0

1

1

Gastrointestinal

Abdominal Pain

2

1

2

2

Dyspepsia/heartburn

2

1

0

2

Nausea/vomiting

3

0

2

2

Immunology

Allergy

1

0

1

1

Musculoskeletal

Musculoskeletal Pain

6

5

6

10

Nervous System

Dizziness

8

4

6

5

Dizziness Orthostatic

1

0

1

1

Renal/Genitourinary

Abnormality Urination

2

1

1

2

The following adverse events were also reported at a rate of 1% or greater, but were as, or more, common in the placebo group: headache, sinus abnormality, cough, URI, pharyngitis, diarrhea, rhinitis, urinary tract infection, rash, anxiety/nervousness, and muscle cramp.

Adverse events occurred at about the same rates in men and women, older and younger patients, and black and non-black patients.

Adverse events in Studies V and VI were similar to those described above in Studies I through IV.

Irbesartan

Other adverse events that have been reported with irbesartan, without regard to causality, are listed below:

Body as a Whole: fever, chills, orthostatic effects, facial edema, upper extremity edema

Cardiovascular: flushing, hypertension, cardiac murmur, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, hypotension, syncope, arrhythmic/conduction disorder, cardiorespiratory arrest, heart failure, hypertensive crisis

Dermatologic: pruritus, dermatitis, ecchymosis, erythema face, urticaria

Endocrine/Metabolic/Electrolyte Imbalances: sexual dysfunction, libido change, gout

Gastrointestinal: diarrhea, constipation, gastroenteritis, flatulence, abdominal distention

Musculoskeletal/Connective Tissue: musculoskeletal trauma, extremity swelling, muscle cramp, arthritis, muscle ache, musculoskeletal chest pain, joint stiffness, bursitis, muscle weakness

Nervous System: anxiety/nervousness, sleep disturbance, numbness, somnolence, vertigo, emotional disturbance, depression, paresthesia, tremor, transient ischemic attack, cerebrovascular accident

Renal/Genitourinary: prostate disorder

Respiratory: cough, upper respiratory infection, epistaxis, tracheobronchitis, congestion, pulmonary congestion, dyspnea, wheezing

Special Senses: vision disturbance, hearing abnormality, ear infection, ear pain, conjunctivitis

Hydrochlorothiazide

Other adverse events that have been reported with hydrochlorothiazide, without regard to causality, are listed below:

Body as a Whole: weakness

Digestive: pancreatitis, jaundice (intrahepatic cholestatic jaundice), sialadenitis, cramping, gastric irritation

Hematologic: aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, leukopenia, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia

Hypersensitivity: purpura, photosensitivity, urticaria, necrotizing angiitis (vasculitis and cutaneous vasculitis), fever, respiratory distress including pneumonitis and pulmonary edema, anaphylactic reactions

Metabolic: hyperglycemia, glycosuria, hyperuricemia

Musculoskeletal: muscle spasm

Nervous System/Psychiatric: restlessness

Renal: renal failure, renal dysfunction, interstitial nephritis

Skin: erythema multiforme including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, exfoliative dermatitis including toxic epidermal necrolysis

Special Senses: transient blurred vision, xanthopsia

Initial Therapy

In the moderate hypertension Study V (mean SeDBP between 90 and 110 mmHg), the types and incidences of adverse events reported for patients treated with irbesartan and hydrochlorothiazide were similar to the adverse event profile in patients on initial irbesartan or HCTZ monotherapy. There were no reported events of syncope in the irbesartan and hydrochlorothiazide treatment group and there was one reported event in the HCTZ treatment group. The incidences of pre-specified adverse events on irbesartan and hydrochlorothiazide, irbesartan, and HCTZ, respectively, were: 0.9%, 0%, and 0% for hypotension; 3.0%, 3.8%, and 1.0% for dizziness; 5.5%, 3.8%, and 4.8% for headache; 1.2%, 0%, and 1.0% for hyperkalemia; and 0.9%, 0%, and 0% for hypokalemia. The rates of discontinuation due to adverse events on irbesartan and hydrochlorothiazide, irbesartan alone, and HCTZ alone were 6.7%, 3.8%, and 4.8%.

In the severe hypertension (SeDBP ≥ 110 mmHg) Study VI, the overall pattern of adverse events reported through 7 weeks of follow-up was similar in patients treated with irbesartan and hydrochlorothiazide as initial therapy and in patients treated with irbesartan as initial therapy. The incidences of the pre-specified adverse events on irbesartan and hydrochlorothiazide and irbesartan, respectively, were: 0% and 0% for syncope; 0.6% and 0% for hypotension; 3.6% and 4.0% for dizziness; 4.3% and 6.6% for headache; 0.2% and 0% for hyperkalemia; and 0.6% and 0.4% for hypokalemia. The rates of discontinuation due to adverse events were 2.1% and 2.2% [ see Clinical Studies ( 14.2) ].

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