Isosorbide Mononitrate (Page 3 of 4)

Pediatric Use

The safety and effectiveness of ISMN in pediatric patients have not been established.

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of isosorbide mononitrate extended-release tablets did not include sufficient information on patients age 65 and over to determine if they respond differently from younger patients. Other reported clinical experience for isosorbide mononitrate extended-release tablets has not identified differences in response between elderly and younger patients. Clinical experience for organic nitrates reported in the literature identified a potential for severe hypotension and increased sensitivity to nitrates in the elderly. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

Elderly patients may have reduced baroreceptor function and may develop severe orthostatic hypotension when vasodilators are used. Isosorbide mononitrate extended-release tablets should therefore be used with caution in elderly patients who may be volume depleted, on multiple medications or who, for whatever reason, are already hypotensive. Hypotension induced by isosorbide mononitrate may be accompanied by paradoxical bradycardia and increased angina pectoris.

Elderly patients may be more susceptible to hypotension and may be at a greater risk of falling at therapeutic doses of nitroglycerin.

Nitrate therapy may aggravate the angina caused by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, particularly in the elderly.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

The table below shows the frequencies of the adverse events that occurred in >5% of the subjects in three placebo-controlled North American studies in which patients in the active treatment arm received 30 mg, 60 mg, 120 mg, or 240 mg of isosorbide mononitrate extended-release tablets once daily. In parentheses, the same table shows the frequencies with which these adverse events were associated with the discontinuation of treatment. Overall, 8% of the patients who received 30 mg, 60 mg, 120 mg, or 240 mg of isosorbide mononitrate in the three placebo-controlled North American studies discontinued treatment because of adverse events. Most of these discontinued because of headache. Dizziness was rarely associated with withdrawal from these studies. Since headache appears to be a dose-related adverse effect and tends to disappear with continued treatment, it is recommended that isosorbide mononitrate extended-release tablets treatment be initiated at low doses for several days before being increased to desired levels.

FREQUENCY AND ADVERSE EVENTS (DISCONTINUED)*

* Some individuals discontinued for multiple reasons.

† Patients were started on 60 mg and titrated to their final dose.

Three Controlled North American Studies
Dose Placebo 30 mg 60 mg 120 mg 240 mg
Patients 96 60 102 65 65
Headache 15% (0%) 38% (5%) 51% (8%) 42% (5%) 57% (8%)
Dizziness 4% (0%) 8% (0%) 11% (1%) 9% (2%) 9% (2%)

In addition, the three North American trials were pooled with 11 controlled trials conducted in Europe. Among the 14 controlled trials, a total of 711 patients were randomized to isosorbide mononitrate extended-release tablets. When the pooled data were reviewed, headache and dizziness were the only adverse events that were reported by >5% of patients. Other adverse events, each reported by ≤5% of exposed patients, and in many cases of uncertain relation to drug treatment, were:

Autonomic Nervous System Disorders: Dry mouth, hot flushes.

Body as a Whole: Asthenia, back pain, chest pain, edema, fatigue, fever, flu-like symptoms, malaise, rigors.

Cardiovascular Disorders, General: Cardiac failure, hypertension, hypotension.

Central and Peripheral Nervous System Disorders: Dizziness, headache, hypoesthesia, migraine, neuritis, paresis, paresthesia, ptosis, tremor, vertigo.

Gastrointestinal System Disorders: Abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhea, dyspepsia, flatulence, gastric ulcer, gastritis, glossitis, hemorrhagic gastric ulcer, hemorrhoids, loose stools, melena, nausea, vomiting.

Hearing and Vestibular Disorders: Earache, tinnitus, tympanic membrane perforation.

Heart Rate and Rhythm Disorders: Arrhythmia, arrhythmia atrial, atrial fibrillation, bradycardia, bundle branch block, extrasystole, palpitation, tachycardia, ventricular tachycardia.

Liver and Biliary System Disorders: SGOT increase, SGPT increase.

Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders: Hyperuricemia, hypokalemia.

Musculoskeletal System Disorders: Arthralgia, frozen shoulder, muscle weakness, musculoskeletal pain, myalgia, myositis, tendon disorder, torticollis.

Myo-, Endo-, Pericardial and Valve Disorders: Angina pectoris aggravated, heart murmur, heart sound abnormal, myocardial infarction, Q wave abnormality.

Platelet, Bleeding and Clotting Disorders: Purpura, thrombocytopenia.

Psychiatric Disorders: Anxiety, concentration impaired, confusion, decreased libido, depression, impotence, insomnia, nervousness, paroniria, somnolence.

Red Blood Cell Disorder: Hypochromic anemia.

Reproductive Disorders, Female: Atrophic vaginitis, breast pain.

Resistance Mechanism Disorders: Bacterial infection, moniliasis, viral infection.

Respiratory System Disorders: Bronchitis, bronchospasm, coughing, dyspnea, increased sputum, nasal congestion, pharyngitis, pneumonia, pulmonary infiltration, rales, rhinitis, sinusitis.

Skin and Appendages Disorders: Acne, hair texture abnormal, increased sweating, pruritus, rash, skin nodule.

Urinary System Disorders: Polyuria, renal calculus, urinary tract infection.

Vascular (Extracardiac) Disorders: Flushing, intermittent claudication, leg ulcer, varicose vein.

Vision Disorders: Conjunctivitis, photophobia, vision abnormal.

In addition, the following spontaneous adverse event has been reported during the marketing of isosorbide mononitrate: syncope.

To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Ingenus Pharmaceuticals, LLC at 1-877-748-1970 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.

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