Jantoven (Page 4 of 9)

7.2 Drugs that Increase Bleeding Risk

Examples of drugs known to increase the risk of bleeding are presented in Table 3. Because bleeding risk is increased when these drugs are used concomitantly with warfarin, closely monitor patients receiving any such drug with warfarin.

Table 3: Drugs that Can Increase the Risk of Bleeding
Drug Class Specific Drugs

Anticoagulants

argatroban, dabigatran, bivalirudin, desirudin, heparin, lepirudin

Antiplatelet Agents

aspirin, cilostazol, clopidogrel, dipyridamole, prasugrel, ticlopidine

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents

celecoxib, diclofenac, diflunisal, fenoprofen, ibuprofen, indomethacin, ketoprofen, ketorolac, mefenamic acid, naproxen, oxaprozin, piroxicam, sulindac

Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors

citalopram, desvenlafaxine, duloxetine, escitalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, milnacipran, paroxetine, sertraline, venlafaxine, vilazodone

7.3 Antibiotics and Antifungals

There have been reports of changes in INR in patients taking warfarin and antibiotics or antifungals, but clinical pharmacokinetic studies have not shown consistent effects of these agents on plasma concentrations of warfarin.

Closely monitor INR when starting or stopping any antibiotic or antifungal in patients taking warfarin.

7.4 Botanical (Herbal) Products and Foods

Exercise caution when botanical (herbal) products are taken concomitantly with JANTOVEN. Few adequate, well-controlled studies evaluating the potential for metabolic and/or pharmacologic interactions between botanicals and warfarin sodium exist. Due to a lack of manufacturing standardization with botanical medicinal preparations, the amount of active ingredients may vary. This could further confound the ability to assess potential interactions and effects on anticoagulation.

Some botanicals may cause bleeding events when taken alone (e.g., garlic and Ginkgo biloba) and may have anticoagulant, antiplatelet, and/or fibrinolytic properties. These effects would be expected to be additive to the anticoagulant effects of JANTOVEN. Conversely, some botanicals may decrease the effects of JANTOVEN (e.g., co-enzyme Q10 , St. John’s wort ginseng). Some botanicals and foods can interact with JANTOVEN through CYP450 interactions (e.g., echinacea, grapefruit juice, ginkgo, goldenseal, St. John’s wort).

Monitor the patient’s response with additional INR determinations when initiating or discontinuing any botanicals.

8. USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category D for women with mechanical heart valves [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)] and Pregnancy Category X for other pregnant populations [see Contraindications (4)].

JANTOVEN is contraindicated in women who are pregnant except in pregnant women with mechanical heart valves, who are at high risk of thromboembolism, and for whom the benefits of JANTOVEN may outweigh the risks. JANTOVEN can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. JANTOVEN exposure during pregnancy causes a recognized pattern of major congenital malformations (warfarin embryopathy), fetal hemorrhage, and an increased risk of spontaneous abortion and fetal mortality. The reproductive and developmental effects of warfarin sodium have not been evaluated in animals. If this drug is used during pregnancy or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus.

In humans, warfarin crosses the placenta, and concentrations in fetal plasma approach the maternal values. Exposure to warfarin during the first trimester of pregnancy caused a pattern of congenital malformations in about 5% of exposed offspring. Warfarin embryopathy is characterized by nasal hypoplasia with or without stippled epiphyses (chondrodysplasia punctata) and growth retardation (including low birth weight). Central nervous system and eye abnormalities have also been reported, including dorsal midline dysplasia characterized by agenesis of the corpus callosum, Dandy-Walker malformation, midline cerebellar atrophy, and ventral midline dysplasia characterized by optic atrophy. Mental retardation, blindness, schizencephaly, microcephaly, hydrocephalus, and other adverse pregnancy outcomes have been reported following warfarin exposure during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy [see Contraindications (4) and Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].

8.3 Nursing Mothers

Based on published data in 15 nursing mothers, warfarin was not detected in human milk. Among the 15 full-term newborns, 6 nursing infants had documented prothrombin times within the expected range. Prothrombin times were not obtained for the other 9 nursing infants. Monitor breast-feeding infants for bruising or bleeding. Effects in premature infants have not been evaluated. Caution should be exercised when JANTOVEN is administered to a nursing woman.

8.4 Pediatric Use

Adequate and well-controlled studies with warfarin sodium have not been conducted in any pediatric population, and the optimum dosing, safety, and efficacy in pediatric patients is unknown. Pediatric use of warfarin sodium is based on adult data and recommendations, and available limited pediatric data from observational studies and patient registries. Pediatric patients administered JANTOVEN should avoid any activity or sport that may result in traumatic injury.

The developing hemostatic system in infants and children results in a changing physiology of thrombosis and response to anticoagulants. Dosing of warfarin in the pediatric population varies by patient age, with infants generally having the highest, and adolescents having the lowest milligram per kilogram dose requirements to maintain target INRs. Because of changing warfarin requirements due to age, concomitant medications, diet, and existing medical condition, target INR ranges may be difficult to achieve and maintain in pediatric patients, and more frequent INR determinations are recommended. Bleeding rates varied by patient population and clinical care center in pediatric observational studies and patient registries.

Infants and children receiving vitamin K-supplemented nutrition, including infant formulas, may be resistant to warfarin therapy, while human milk-fed infants may be sensitive to warfarin therapy.

8.5 Geriatric Use

Of the total number of patients receiving warfarin sodium in controlled clinical trials for which data were available for analysis, 1885 patients (24.4%) were 65 years and older, while 185 patients (2.4%) were 75 years and older. No overall differences in effectiveness or safety were observed between these patients and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.

Patients 60 years or older appear to exhibit greater than expected INR response to the anticoagulant effects of warfarin [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. JANTOVEN is contraindicated in any unsupervised patient with senility. Observe caution with administration of JANTOVEN to elderly patients in any situation or with any physical condition where added risk of hemorrhage is present. Consider lower initiation and maintenance doses of JANTOVEN in elderly patients [see Dosage and Administration (2.2, 2.3)].

8.6 Renal Impairment

Renal clearance is considered to be a minor determinant of anticoagulant response to warfarin. No dosage adjustment is necessary for patients with renal impairment.

8.7 Hepatic Impairment

Hepatic impairment can potentiate the response to warfarin through impaired synthesis of clotting factors and decreased metabolism of warfarin. Use caution when using JANTOVEN in these patients.

8.8 Females of Reproductive Potential

JANTOVEN exposure during pregnancy can cause spontaneous abortion, birth defects, or fetal death. Females of reproductive potential who are candidates for JANTOVEN therapy should be counseled regarding the benefits of therapy and potential reproductive risks. Discuss pregnancy planning with females of reproductive potential who are on JANTOVEN therapy. If the patient becomes pregnant while taking JANTOVEN, she should be apprised of the potential risks to the fetus.

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