There have been postmarketing reports of acute pancreatitis, including fatal and non-fatal hemorrhagic or necrotizing pancreatitis, in patients taking sitagliptin with or without metformin. After initiation of JANUMET XR, patients should be observed carefully for signs and symptoms of pancreatitis. If pancreatitis is suspected, JANUMET XR should promptly be discontinued and appropriate management should be initiated. It is unknown whether patients with a history of pancreatitis are at increased risk for the development of pancreatitis while using JANUMET XR.
An association between dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor treatment and heart failure has been observed in cardiovascular outcomes trials for two other members of the DPP-4 inhibitor class. These trials evaluated patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.
Consider the risks and benefits of JANUMET XR prior to initiating treatment in patients at risk for heart failure, such as those with a prior history of heart failure and a history of renal impairment, and observe these patients for signs and symptoms of heart failure during therapy. Advise patients of the characteristic symptoms of heart failure and to immediately report such symptoms. If heart failure develops, evaluate and manage according to current standards of care and consider discontinuation of JANUMET XR.
Metformin and sitagliptin are substantially excreted by the kidney.
There have been postmarketing reports of worsening renal function in patients taking sitagliptin with or without metformin, including acute renal failure, sometimes requiring dialysis. Before initiation of therapy with JANUMET XR and at least annually thereafter, renal function should be assessed. In patients in whom development of renal dysfunction is anticipated, particularly in elderly patients, renal function should be assessed more frequently and JANUMET XR discontinued if evidence of renal impairment is present.
In controlled clinical trials of metformin of 29 weeks duration, a decrease to subnormal levels of previously normal serum vitamin B12 levels was observed in approximately 7% of patients. Such decrease, possibly due to interference with B12 absorption from the B12 -intrinsic factor complex, may be associated with anemia but appears to be rapidly reversible with discontinuation of metformin or vitamin B12 supplementation. Certain individuals (those with inadequate vitamin B12 or calcium intake or absorption) appear to be predisposed to developing subnormal vitamin B12 levels. Measure hematologic parameters on an annual basis and vitamin B12 measurements at 2- to 3-year intervals in patients on JANUMET XR and manage any abnormalities [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].
A patient with type 2 diabetes previously well controlled on JANUMET XR who develops laboratory abnormalities or clinical illness (especially vague and poorly defined illness) should be evaluated promptly for evidence of ketoacidosis or lactic acidosis. Evaluation should include serum electrolytes and ketones, blood glucose and, if indicated, blood pH, lactate, pyruvate, and metformin levels. If acidosis of either form occurs, JANUMET XR must be stopped immediately and other appropriate corrective measures initiated.
When sitagliptin was used in combination with a sulfonylurea or with insulin, medications known to cause hypoglycemia, the incidence of hypoglycemia was increased over that of placebo used in combination with a sulfonylurea or with insulin [see Adverse Reactions (6)]. Therefore, patients also receiving an insulin secretagogue (e.g., sulfonylurea) or insulin may require a lower dose of the insulin secretagogue or insulin to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia [see Drug Interactions (7.4)].
Hypoglycemia does not occur in patients receiving metformin alone under usual circumstances of use, but could occur when caloric intake is deficient, when strenuous exercise is not compensated by caloric supplementation, or during concomitant use with other glucose-lowering agents (such as sulfonylureas and insulin) or ethanol. Elderly, debilitated, or malnourished patients, and those with adrenal or pituitary insufficiency or alcohol intoxication are particularly susceptible to hypoglycemic effects. Hypoglycemia may be difficult to recognize in the elderly, and in people who are taking β-adrenergic blocking drugs.
When a patient stabilized on any diabetic regimen is exposed to stress such as fever, trauma, infection, or surgery, a temporary loss of glycemic control may occur. At such times, it may be necessary to withhold JANUMET XR and temporarily administer insulin. JANUMET XR may be reinstituted after the acute episode is resolved.
There have been postmarketing reports of serious hypersensitivity reactions in patients treated with sitagliptin, one of the components of JANUMET XR. These reactions include anaphylaxis, angioedema, and exfoliative skin conditions including Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Onset of these reactions occurred within the first 3 months after initiation of treatment with sitagliptin, with some reports occurring after the first dose. If a hypersensitivity reaction is suspected, discontinue JANUMET XR, assess for other potential causes for the event, and institute alternative treatment for diabetes. [See Adverse Reactions (6.2).]
Use caution in a patient with a history of angioedema to another DPP-4 inhibitor because it is unknown whether such patients will be predisposed to angioedema with JANUMET XR.
There have been postmarketing reports of severe and disabling arthralgia in patients taking DPP-4 inhibitors. The time to onset of symptoms following initiation of drug therapy varied from one day to years. Patients experienced relief of symptoms upon discontinuation of the medication. A subset of patients experienced a recurrence of symptoms when restarting the same drug or a different DPP-4 inhibitor. Consider DPP-4 inhibitors as a possible cause for severe joint pain and discontinue drug if appropriate.
Postmarketing cases of bullous pemphigoid requiring hospitalization have been reported with DPP-4 inhibitor use. In reported cases, patients typically recovered with topical or systemic immunosuppressive treatment and discontinuation of the DPP-4 inhibitor. Tell patients to report development of blisters or erosions while receiving JANUMET XR. If bullous pemphigoid is suspected, JANUMET XR should be discontinued and referral to a dermatologist should be considered for diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
There have been no clinical studies establishing conclusive evidence of macrovascular risk reduction with JANUMET XR.
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Sitagliptin and Metformin Immediate-Release Coadministration in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Inadequately Controlled on Diet and Exercise
Table 1 summarizes the most common (≥5% of patients) adverse reactions reported (regardless of investigator assessment of causality) in a 24-week placebo-controlled factorial study in which sitagliptin and metformin immediate-release were coadministered to patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on diet and exercise.
|Number of Patients (%)|
|Placebo||Sitagliptin100 mg oncedaily||Metformin Immediate-Release 500 mg or1000 mg twice daily †||Sitagliptin50 mg twice daily +Metformin Immediate-Release 500 mg or 1000mg twice daily †|
|N = 176||N = 179||N = 364†||N = 372†|
|Diarrhea||7 (4.0)||5 (2.8)||28 (7.7)||28 (7.5)|
|Upper Respiratory Tract Infection||9 (5.1)||8 (4.5)||19 (5.2)||23 (6.2)|
|Headache||5 (2.8)||2 (1.1)||14 (3.8)||22 (5.9)|
Sitagliptin Add-on Therapy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Inadequately Controlled on Metformin Immediate-Release Alone
In a 24-week placebo-controlled trial of sitagliptin 100 mg administered once daily added to a twice daily metformin immediate-release regimen, there were no adverse reactions reported regardless of investigator assessment of causality in ≥5% of patients and more commonly than in patients given placebo. Discontinuation of therapy due to clinical adverse reactions was similar to the placebo treatment group (sitagliptin and metformin immediate-release, 1.9%; placebo and metformin immediate-release, 2.5%).
Gastrointestinal Adverse Reactions
The incidences of pre-selected gastrointestinal adverse experiences in patients treated with sitagliptin and metformin immediate-release were similar to those reported for patients treated with metformin immediate-release alone. See Table 2.
|Number of Patients (%)|
|Study of Sitagliptin and Metformin Immediate-Release in Patients Inadequately Controlled on Diet and Exercise||Study of Sitagliptin Add-on in Patients Inadequately Controlled on Metformin Immediate-Release Alone|
|Placebo||Sitagliptin100 mgonce daily||MetforminImmediate-Release500 mg or 1000 mgtwice daily *||Sitagliptin 50 mg bid +Metformin Immediate-Release 500 mg or1000 mg twice daily *||Placebo andMetforminImmediate-Release≥1500 mgdaily||Sitagliptin 100 mgonce daily andMetformin Immediate-Release≥1500 mg daily|
|N = 176||N = 179||N = 364||N = 372||N = 237||N = 464|
|Diarrhea||7 (4.0)||5 (2.8)||28 (7.7)||28 (7.5)||6 (2.5)||11 (2.4)|
|Nausea||2 (1.1)||2 (1.1)||20 (5.5)||18 (4.8)||2 (0.8)||6 (1.3)|
|Vomiting||1 (0.6)||0 (0.0)||2 (0.5)||8 (2.2)||2 (0.8)||5 (1.1)|
|Abdominal Pain †||4 (2.3)||6 (3.4)||14 (3.8)||11 (3.0)||9 (3.8)||10 (2.2)|
Sitagliptin in Combination with Metformin Immediate-Release and Glimepiride
In a 24-week placebo-controlled study of sitagliptin 100 mg as add-on therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on metformin immediate-release and glimepiride (sitagliptin, N=116; placebo, N=113), the adverse reactions reported regardless of investigator assessment of causality in ≥5% of patients treated with sitagliptin and more commonly than in patients treated with placebo were: hypoglycemia (Table 3) and headache (6.9%, 2.7%).
Sitagliptin in Combination with Metformin Immediate-Release and Rosiglitazone
In a placebo-controlled study of sitagliptin 100 mg as add-on therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on metformin immediate-release and rosiglitazone (sitagliptin, N=181; placebo, N=97), the adverse reactions reported regardless of investigator assessment of causality through Week 18 in ≥5% of patients treated with sitagliptin and more commonly than in patients treated with placebo were: upper respiratory tract infection (sitagliptin, 5.5%; placebo, 5.2%) and nasopharyngitis (6.1%, 4.1%). Through Week 54, the adverse reactions reported regardless of investigator assessment of causality in ≥5% of patients treated with sitagliptin and more commonly than in patients treated with placebo were: upper respiratory tract infection (sitagliptin, 15.5%; placebo, 6.2%), nasopharyngitis (11.0%, 9.3%), peripheral edema (8.3%, 5.2%), and headache (5.5%, 4.1%).
Sitagliptin in Combination with Metformin Immediate-Release and Insulin
In a 24-week placebo-controlled study of sitagliptin 100 mg as add-on therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on metformin immediate-release and insulin (sitagliptin, N=229; placebo, N=233), the only adverse reaction reported regardless of investigator assessment of causality in ≥5% of patients treated with sitagliptin and more commonly than in patients treated with placebo was hypoglycemia (Table 3).
In the above studies (N=5), adverse reactions of hypoglycemia were based on all reports of symptomatic hypoglycemia; a concurrent glucose measurement was not required although most (77%) reports of hypoglycemia were accompanied by a blood glucose measurement ≤70 mg/dL. When the combination of sitagliptin and metformin immediate-release was coadministered with a sulfonylurea or with insulin, the percentage of patients reporting at least one adverse reaction of hypoglycemia was higher than that observed with placebo and metformin immediate-release coadministered with a sulfonylurea or with insulin (Table 3).
|Add-On to Glimepiride + Metformin Immediate-Release (24 weeks)||Sitagliptin 100 mg+ Metformin Immediate-Release+ Glimepiride||Placebo+ Metformin Immediate-Release+ Glimepiride|
|N = 116||N = 113|
|Overall (%)||19 (16.4)||1 (0.9)|
|Rate (episodes/patient-year) †||0.82||0.02|
|Severe (%)‡||0 (0.0)||0 (0.0)|
|Add-On to Insulin + Metformin Immediate-Release (24 weeks)||Sitagliptin 100 mg+ Metformin Immediate-Release+ Insulin||Placebo+ Metformin Immediate-Release+ Insulin|
|N = 229||N = 233|
|Overall (%)||35 (15.3)||19 (8.2)|
|Rate (episodes/patient-year) †||0.98||0.61|
|Severe (%)‡||1 (0.4)||1 (0.4)|
The overall incidence of reported adverse reactions of hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on diet and exercise was 0.6% in patients given placebo, 0.6% in patients given sitagliptin alone, 0.8% in patients given metformin immediate-release alone, and 1.6% in patients given sitagliptin in combination with metformin immediate-release. In patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on metformin immediate-release alone, the overall incidence of adverse reactions of hypoglycemia was 1.3% in patients given add-on sitagliptin and 2.1% in patients given add-on placebo.
In the study of sitagliptin and add-on combination therapy with metformin immediate-release and rosiglitazone, the overall incidence of hypoglycemia was 2.2% in patients given add-on sitagliptin and 0.0% in patients given add-on placebo through Week 18. Through Week 54, the overall incidence of hypoglycemia was 3.9% in patients given add-on sitagliptin and 1.0% in patients given add-on placebo.
In an additional 30-week placebo-controlled study of patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with metformin comparing the maintenance of sitagliptin 100 mg versus withdrawal of sitagliptin when initiating basal insulin therapy, the event rate and incidence of documented symptomatic hypoglycemia (blood glucose measurement ≤70 mg/dL) did not differ between the sitagliptin and placebo groups.
Vital Signs and Electrocardiograms
With the combination of sitagliptin and metformin immediate-release, no clinically meaningful changes in vital signs or in electrocardiogram parameters (including the QTc interval) were observed.
In a pooled analysis of 19 double-blind clinical trials that included data from 10,246 patients randomized to receive sitagliptin 100 mg/day (N=5429) or corresponding (active or placebo) control (N=4817), the incidence of acute pancreatitis was 0.1 per 100 patient-years in each group (4 patients with an event in 4708 patient-years for sitagliptin and 4 patients with an event in 3942 patient-years for control). [See Warnings and Precautions (5.2).]
The most common adverse experience in sitagliptin monotherapy reported regardless of investigator assessment of causality in ≥5% of patients and more commonly than in patients given placebo was nasopharyngitis.
In a 24-week clinical trial in which extended-release metformin or placebo was added to glyburide therapy, the most common (>5% and greater than placebo) adverse reactions in the combined treatment group were hypoglycemia (13.7% vs. 4.9%), diarrhea (12.5% vs. 5.6%), and nausea (6.7% vs. 4.2%).
The incidence of laboratory adverse reactions was similar in patients treated with sitagliptin and metformin immediate-release (7.6%) compared to patients treated with placebo and metformin (8.7%). In most but not all studies, a small increase in white blood cell count (approximately 200 cells/microL difference in WBC vs. placebo; mean baseline WBC approximately 6600 cells/microL) was observed due to a small increase in neutrophils. This change in laboratory parameters is not considered to be clinically relevant.
In controlled clinical trials of metformin of 29 weeks duration, a decrease to subnormal levels of previously normal serum vitamin B12 levels, without clinical manifestations, was observed in approximately 7% of patients. Such decrease, possibly due to interference with B12 absorption from the B12 -intrinsic factor complex, is, however, very rarely associated with anemia and appears to be rapidly reversible with discontinuation of metformin or vitamin B12 supplementation. [See Warnings and Precautions (5.5).]
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