JANUMET XR (Page 3 of 8)

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

Additional adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of sitagliptin with metformin, sitagliptin, or metformin. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is generally not possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis, angioedema, rash, urticaria, cutaneous vasculitis, and exfoliative skin conditions including Stevens-Johnson syndrome; upper respiratory tract infection; hepatic enzyme elevations; acute pancreatitis, including fatal and non-fatal hemorrhagic and necrotizing pancreatitis [see Indications and Usage (1)]; worsening renal function, including acute renal failure (sometimes requiring dialysis); severe and disabling arthralgia; bullous pemphigoid; constipation; vomiting; headache; myalgia; pain in extremity; back pain; pruritus; mouth ulceration; stomatitis; cholestatic, hepatocellular, and mixed hepatocellular liver injury; rhabdomyolysis.


Table 4 presents clinically significant drug interactions with JANUMET XR:

Table 4: Clinically Significant Drug Interactions with JANUMET XR
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
Clinical Impact: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors frequently cause a decrease in serum bicarbonate and induce non-anion gap, hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. Concomitant use of these drugs with JANUMET XR may increase the risk for lactic acidosis.
Intervention: Consider more frequent monitoring of these patients.
Examples: Topiramate, zonisamide, acetazolamide or dichlorphenamide.
Drugs that Reduce Metformin Clearance
Clinical Impact: Concomitant use of drugs that interfere with common renal tubular transport systems involved in the renal elimination of metformin (e.g., organic cationic transporter-2 [OCT2 ] / multidrug and toxin extrusion [MATE] inhibitors) could increase systemic exposure to metformin and may increase the risk for lactic acidosis [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Intervention: Consider the benefits and risks of concomitant use with JANUMET XR.
Examples: Ranolazine, vandetanib, dolutegravir, and cimetidine.
Clinical Impact: Alcohol is known to potentiate the effect of metformin on lactate metabolism.
Intervention: Warn patients against alcohol intake while receiving JANUMET XR.
Insulin Secretagogues or Insulin
Clinical Impact: Coadministration of JANUMET XR with an insulin secretagogue (e.g., sulfonylurea) or insulin may increase the risk of hypoglycemia.
Intervention: Patients receiving an insulin secretagogue or insulin may require lower doses of the insulin secretagogue or insulin.
Drugs Affecting Glycemic Control
Clinical Impact: Certain drugs tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glycemic control.
Intervention: When such drugs are administered to a patient receiving JANUMET XR, observe the patient closely for loss of blood glucose control. When such drugs are withdrawn from a patient receiving JANUMET XR, observe the patient closely for hypoglycemia.
Examples: Thiazides and other diuretics, corticosteroids, phenothiazines, thyroid products, estrogens, oral contraceptives, phenytoin, nicotinic acid, sympathomimetics, calcium channel blockers, and isoniazid.


8.1 Pregnancy

Pregnancy Exposure Registry

There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to JANUMET XR during pregnancy. Health care providers are encouraged to report any prenatal exposure to JANUMET XR by calling the Pregnancy Registry at 1-800-986-8999.

Risk Summary

The limited available data with JANUMET XR in pregnant women are not sufficient to inform a drug-associated risk for major birth defects and miscarriage. Published studies with metformin use during pregnancy have not reported a clear association with metformin and major birth defect or miscarriage risk [see Data]. There are risks to the mother and fetus associated with poorly controlled diabetes in pregnancy [see Clinical Considerations]. No adverse developmental effects were observed when sitagliptin was administered to pregnant rats and rabbits during organogenesis at oral doses up to 30-times and 20-times, respectively, the 100 mg clinical dose, based on AUC. No adverse developmental effects were observed when metformin was administered to pregnant Sprague Dawley rats and rabbits during organogenesis at doses up to 2- and 6-times, respectively, a 2000 mg clinical dose, based on body surface area [see Data].

The estimated background risk of major birth defects is 6-10% in women with pre-gestational diabetes with a Hemoglobin A1c >7% and has been reported to be as high as 20-25% in women with a Hemoglobin A1c >10%. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively.

Clinical Considerations

Disease-Associated Maternal and/or Embryo/Fetal Risk

Poorly controlled diabetes in pregnancy increases the maternal risk for diabetic ketoacidosis, pre-eclampsia, spontaneous abortions, preterm delivery, and delivery complications. Poorly controlled diabetes increases the fetal risk for major birth defects, still birth, and macrosomia related morbidity.


Human Data

Published data from post-marketing studies do not report a clear association with metformin and major birth defects, miscarriage, or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes when metformin is used during pregnancy. However, these studies cannot definitely establish the absence of any risk because of methodological limitations, including small sample size and inconsistent comparator groups.

Animal Data

Sitagliptin and Metformin

No animal reproduction studies were conducted with the coadministration of sitagliptin and metformin.


In embryo-fetal development studies, sitagliptin administered to pregnant rats and rabbits during organogenesis (gestation day 6 to 20) did not adversely affect developmental outcomes at oral doses up to 250 mg/kg (30-times the 100 mg clinical dose) and 125 mg/kg (20-times the 100 mg clinical dose), respectively, based on AUC. Higher doses in rats associated with maternal toxicity increased the incidence of rib malformations in offspring at 1000 mg/kg, or approximately 100-times the clinical dose, based on AUC. Placental transfer of sitagliptin was observed in pregnant rats and rabbits.

Sitagliptin administered to female rats from gestation day 6 to lactation day 21 caused no functional or behavioral toxicity in offspring of rats at doses up to 1000 mg/kg.


Metformin did not cause adverse developmental effects when administered to pregnant Sprague Dawley rats and rabbits up to 600 mg/kg/day during the period of organogenesis. This represents an exposure of about 2- and 6-times a 2000 mg clinical dose based on body surface area (mg/m2) for rats and rabbits, respectively.

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