There is no information regarding the presence of JANUMET XR in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Limited published studies report that metformin is present in human milk [see Data]. There are no reports of adverse effects on breastfed infants exposed to metformin. There is no information on the effects of metformin on milk production. Sitagliptin is present in rat milk and therefore possibly present in human milk [see Data]. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for JANUMET XR and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from JANUMET XR or from the underlying maternal condition.
Sitagliptin is secreted in the milk of lactating rats at a milk to plasma ratio of 4:1.
Published clinical lactation studies report that metformin is present in human milk, which resulted in infant doses approximately 0.11% to 1% of the maternal weight-adjusted dosage and a milk/plasma ratio ranging between 0.13 and 1. However, the studies were not designed to definitely establish the risk of use of metformin during lactation because of small sample size and limited adverse event data collected in infants.
Discuss the potential for unintended pregnancy with premenopausal women as therapy with metformin may result in ovulation in some anovulatory women.
The safety and effectiveness of JANUMET XR have not been established in pediatric patients.
Three 20-week double-blind, placebo-controlled studies each with 34-week extensions were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sitagliptin in 410 pediatric patients aged 10 to 17 years with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes, with or without insulin therapy (HbA1c 6.5-10% for patients not on insulin, HbA1c 7-10% for patients on insulin). At study entry, patients in study 1 were not treated with oral antihyperglycemic agents; patients in studies 2 and 3 were on maximally tolerated metformin therapy. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change from baseline in HbA1c after 20 weeks of therapy. The pre-specified primary efficacy analyses included data from study 1 and pooled data from studies 2 and 3, regardless of glycemic rescue or treatment discontinuation.
In both efficacy analyses, the effect of treatment with sitagliptin was not significantly different from placebo. In study 1, the mean baseline HbA1c was 7.5%, and 12% of patients were on insulin therapy. At week 20, the change from baseline in HbA1c in patients treated with sitagliptin (N=95) was 0.06% compared to 0.23% in patients treated with placebo (N=95), a difference of -0.17% (95% CI: -0.62, 0.28). In studies 2 and 3, the mean baseline HbA1c was 8.0%, 15% of patients were on insulin and 72% were on metformin HCl doses of greater than 1,500 mg daily. At week 20, the change from baseline in HbA1c in patients treated with sitagliptin (N=107) was -0.23% compared to 0.09% in patients treated with placebo (N=113), a difference of -0.33% (95% CI: -0.70, 0.05).
In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and concomitant disease or other drug therapy and the higher risk of lactic acidosis. Renal function should be assessed more frequently in elderly patients. [See Contraindications (4); Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.4); Clinical Pharmacology (12.3).]
Of the total number of subjects (N=3884) in clinical studies of sitagliptin, 725 patients were 65 years and over, while 61 patients were 75 years and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between subjects 65 years and over and younger subjects. While this and other reported clinical experience have not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
Controlled clinical studies of metformin did not include sufficient numbers of elderly patients to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients, although other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and young patients.
The dose of the sitagliptin component should be limited to 50 mg once daily if eGFR falls below 45 mL/min/1.73 m2. JANUMET XR is contraindicated in severe renal impairment, patients with an eGFR below 30 mL/min/1.73 m2. [See Dosage and Administration (2.2), Contraindications (4), Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3).]
Sitagliptin is excreted by the kidney, and sitagliptin exposure is increased in patients with renal impairment. [See Clinical Pharmacology (12.3).]
Metformin is substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of metformin accumulation and lactic acidosis increases with the degree of renal impairment.
Use of metformin in patients with hepatic impairment has been associated with some cases of lactic acidosis. JANUMET XR is not recommended in patients with hepatic impairment. [See Warnings and Precautions (5.1).]
In the event of overdose with JANUMET XR, contact the Poison Control Center.
In the event of an overdose, it is reasonable to employ supportive measures, e.g., remove unabsorbed material from the gastrointestinal tract, employ clinical monitoring (including obtaining an electrocardiogram), and institute supportive therapy as indicated by the patient’s clinical status.
Sitagliptin is modestly dialyzable. In clinical studies, approximately 13.5% of the dose was removed over a 3- to 4-hour hemodialysis session. Prolonged hemodialysis may be considered if clinically appropriate. It is not known if sitagliptin is dialyzable by peritoneal dialysis.
Overdose of metformin has occurred, including ingestion of amounts greater than 50 grams. Hypoglycemia was reported in approximately 10% of cases, but no causal association with metformin has been established. Lactic acidosis has been reported in approximately 32% of metformin overdose cases [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Metformin is dialyzable with a clearance of up to 170 mL/min under good hemodynamic conditions. Therefore, hemodialysis may be useful for removal of accumulated drug from patients in whom metformin overdosage is suspected.
JANUMET XR tablets for oral use contain two antihyperglycemic medications: sitagliptin and metformin extended-release.
Sitagliptin is an orally-active inhibitor of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) enzyme. Sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate drug substance is used to manufacture JANUMET XR. Sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate is described chemically as 7-[(3R)-3-amino-1-oxo-4-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)butyl]-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1,2,4-triazolo[4,3-α]pyrazine phosphate (1:1) monohydrate with an empirical formula of C16 H15 F6 N5 O•H3 PO4 •H2 O and a molecular weight of 523.32. The structural formula is:
Sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate is a white to off-white, crystalline, non-hygroscopic powder. It is soluble in water and N,N-dimethyl formamide; slightly soluble in methanol; very slightly soluble in ethanol, acetone, and acetonitrile; and insoluble in isopropanol and isopropyl acetate.
Metformin HCl (N ,N -dimethylimidodicarbonimidic diamide HCl) is a white to off-white crystalline compound with a molecular formula of C4 H11 N5 •HCl and a molecular weight of 165.63. Metformin HCl is freely soluble in water and is practically insoluble in acetone, ether, and chloroform. The pKa of metformin HCl is 12.4. The pH of a 1% aqueous solution of metformin HCl is 6.68. The structural formula is as shown:image of metaformin chemical structure
JANUMET XR is available as film-coated tablets containing:
- 64.25 mg sitagliptin monohydrate equivalent to 50 mg sitagliptin and 389.93 mg of metformin equivalent to 500 mg metformin HCl (JANUMET XR 50/500).
- 64.25 mg sitagliptin monohydrate equivalent to 50 mg sitagliptin and 779.86 mg of metformin equivalent to 1000 mg metformin HCl (JANUMET XR 50/1000).
- 128.5 mg sitagliptin monohydrate equivalent to 100 mg sitagliptin and 779.86 mg of metformin equivalent to 1000 mg metformin HCl (JANUMET XR 100/1000).
All doses of JANUMET XR contain the following inactive ingredients: povidone, hypromellose, colloidal silicon dioxide, sodium stearyl fumarate, propyl gallate, polyethylene glycol, and kaolin. The JANUMET XR 50 mg/500 mg tablet contains the additional inactive ingredient microcrystalline cellulose. In addition, the film coating for all doses contains the following inactive ingredients: hypromellose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, titanium dioxide, FD&C #2/Indigo Carmine Aluminum Lake and carnauba wax. The JANUMET XR 50 mg/1000 mg tablet film coating also contains the inactive ingredient yellow iron oxide.
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