JANUVIA (Page 4 of 7)

13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

A two-year carcinogenicity study was conducted in male and female rats given oral doses of sitagliptin of 50, 150, and 500 mg/kg/day. There was an increased incidence of combined liver adenoma/carcinoma in males and females and of liver carcinoma in females at 500 mg/kg. This dose results in exposures approximately 60 times the human exposure at the maximum recommended daily adult human dose (MRHD) of 100 mg/day based on AUC comparisons. Liver tumors were not observed at 150 mg/kg, approximately 20 times the human exposure at the MRHD. A two-year carcinogenicity study was conducted in male and female mice given oral doses of sitagliptin of 50, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg/day. There was no increase in the incidence of tumors in any organ up to 500 mg/kg, approximately 70 times human exposure at the MRHD. Sitagliptin was not mutagenic or clastogenic with or without metabolic activation in the Ames bacterial mutagenicity assay, a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) chromosome aberration assay, an in vitro cytogenetics assay in CHO, an in vitro rat hepatocyte DNA alkaline elution assay, and an in vivo micronucleus assay.

In rat fertility studies with oral gavage doses of 125, 250, and 1000 mg/kg, males were treated for 4 weeks prior to mating, during mating, up to scheduled termination (approximately 8 weeks total) and females were treated 2 weeks prior to mating through gestation day 7. No adverse effect on fertility was observed at 125 mg/kg (approximately 12 times human exposure at the MRHD of 100 mg/day based on AUC comparisons). At higher doses, nondose-related increased resorptions in females were observed (approximately 25 and 100 times human exposure at the MRHD based on AUC comparison).

14 CLINICAL STUDIES

There were approximately 5200 patients with type 2 diabetes randomized in nine double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical safety and efficacy studies conducted to evaluate the effects of sitagliptin on glycemic control. In a pooled analysis of seven of these studies, the ethnic/racial distribution was approximately 59% white, 20% Hispanic, 10% Asian, 6% black, and 6% other groups. Patients had an overall mean age of approximately 55 years (range 18 to 87 years). In addition, an active (glipizide)-controlled study of 52-weeks duration was conducted in 1172 patients with type 2 diabetes who had inadequate glycemic control on metformin.

In patients with type 2 diabetes, treatment with JANUVIA produced clinically significant improvements in hemoglobin A1C, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-hour post-prandial glucose (PPG) compared to placebo.

14.1 Monotherapy

A total of 1262 patients with type 2 diabetes participated in two double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, one of 18-week and another of 24-week duration, to evaluate the efficacy and safety of JANUVIA monotherapy. In both monotherapy studies, patients currently on an antihyperglycemic agent discontinued the agent, and underwent a diet, exercise, and drug washout period of about 7 weeks. Patients with inadequate glycemic control (A1C 7% to 10%) after the washout period were randomized after completing a 2-week single-blind placebo run-in period; patients not currently on antihyperglycemic agents (off therapy for at least 8 weeks) with inadequate glycemic control (A1C 7% to 10%) were randomized after completing the 2-week single-blind placebo run-in period. In the 18-week study, 521 patients were randomized to placebo, JANUVIA 100 mg, or JANUVIA 200 mg, and in the 24-week study 741 patients were randomized to placebo, JANUVIA 100 mg, or JANUVIA 200 mg. Patients who failed to meet specific glycemic goals during the studies were treated with metformin rescue, added on to placebo or JANUVIA.

Treatment with JANUVIA at 100 mg daily provided significant improvements in A1C, FPG, and 2-hour PPG compared to placebo (Table 4). In the 18-week study, 9% of patients receiving JANUVIA 100 mg and 17% who received placebo required rescue therapy. In the 24-week study, 9% of patients receiving JANUVIA 100 mg and 21% of patients receiving placebo required rescue therapy. The improvement in A1C compared to placebo was not affected by gender, age, race, prior antihyperglycemic therapy, or baseline BMI. As is typical for trials of agents to treat type 2 diabetes, the mean reduction in A1C with JANUVIA appears to be related to the degree of A1C elevation at baseline. In these 18- and 24-week studies, among patients who were not on an antihyperglycemic agent at study entry, the reductions from baseline in A1C were -0.7% and -0.8%, respectively, for those given JANUVIA, and -0.1% and -0.2%, respectively, for those given placebo. Overall, the 200 mg daily dose did not provide greater glycemic efficacy than the 100 mg daily dose. The effect of JANUVIA on lipid endpoints was similar to placebo. Body weight did not increase from baseline with JANUVIA therapy in either study, compared to a small reduction in patients given placebo.

Table 4: Glycemic Parameters in 18- and 24-Week Placebo-Controlled Studies of JANUVIA in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes *
18-Week Study 24-Week Study
JANUVIA 100 mg Placebo JANUVIA 100 mg Placebo
*
Intent-to-treat population using last observation on study prior to metformin rescue therapy.
Least squares means adjusted for prior antihyperglycemic therapy status and baseline value.
p<0.001 compared to placebo.
§
Data not available.

A1C (%)

N = 193

N = 103

N = 229

N = 244

Baseline (mean)

8.0

8.1

8.0

8.0

Change from baseline (adjusted mean )

-0.5

0.1

-0.6

0.2

Difference from placebo (adjusted mean ) (95% CI)

-0.6(-0.8, -0.4)

-0.8 (-1.0, -0.6)

Patients (%) achieving A1C <7%

69 (36%)

16 (16%)

93 (41%)

41 (17%)

FPG (mg/dL)

N = 201

N = 107

N = 234

N = 247

Baseline (mean)

180

184

170

176

Change from baseline (adjusted mean )

-13

7

-12

5

Difference from placebo (adjusted mean ) (95% CI)

-20(‑31, -9)

-17(‑24, -10)

2-hour PPG (mg/dL)

§

§

N = 201

N = 204

Baseline (mean)

257

271

Change from baseline (adjusted mean )

-49

-2

Difference from placebo (adjusted mean ) (95% CI)

-47(-59, -34)

Additional Monotherapy Study

A multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was also conducted to assess the safety and tolerability of JANUVIA in 91 patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance <50 mL/min). Patients with moderate renal insufficiency received 50 mg daily of JANUVIA and those with severe renal insufficiency or with ESRD on hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis received 25 mg daily. In this study, the safety and tolerability of JANUVIA were generally similar to placebo. A small increase in serum creatinine was reported in patients with moderate renal insufficiency treated with JANUVIA relative to those on placebo. In addition, the reductions in A1C and FPG with JANUVIA compared to placebo were generally similar to those observed in other monotherapy studies. [See Clinical Pharmacology (12.3).]

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