JANUVIA (Page 3 of 8)

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

Additional adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of JANUVIA as monotherapy and/or in combination with other antihyperglycemic agents. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is generally not possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis, angioedema, rash, urticaria, cutaneous vasculitis, and exfoliative skin conditions including Stevens-Johnson syndrome; hepatic enzyme elevations; acute pancreatitis, including fatal and non-fatal hemorrhagic and necrotizing pancreatitis [see Indications and Usage (1) ]; worsening renal function, including acute renal failure (sometimes requiring dialysis); severe and disabling arthralgia; bullous pemphigoid; constipation; vomiting; headache; myalgia; pain in extremity; back pain; pruritus; mouth ulceration; stomatitis; rhabdomyolysis.


7.1 Insulin Secretagogues or Insulin

Coadministration of JANUVIA with an insulin secretagogue (e.g., sulfonylurea) or insulin may require lower doses of the insulin secretagogue or insulin to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia. [See Warnings and Precautions (5.4).]


8.1 Pregnancy

Pregnancy Exposure Registry

There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to JANUVIA during pregnancy. Health care providers are encouraged to report any prenatal exposure to JANUVIA by calling the Pregnancy Registry at 1-800-986-8999.

Risk Summary

The limited available data with JANUVIA in pregnant women are not sufficient to inform a drug-associated risk for major birth defects and miscarriage. There are risks to the mother and fetus associated with poorly controlled diabetes in pregnancy [see Clinical Considerations]. No adverse developmental effects were observed when sitagliptin was administered to pregnant rats and rabbits during organogenesis at oral doses up to 30-times and 20-times, respectively, the 100 mg clinical dose, based on AUC [see Data].

The estimated background risk of major birth defects is 6-10% in women with pre-gestational diabetes with a Hemoglobin A1c >7% and has been reported to be as high as 20-25% in women with a Hemoglobin A1c >10%. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively.

Clinical Considerations

Disease-Associated Maternal and/or Embryo/Fetal Risk

Poorly controlled diabetes in pregnancy increases the maternal risk for diabetic ketoacidosis, pre-eclampsia, spontaneous abortions, preterm delivery, and delivery complications. Poorly controlled diabetes increases the fetal risk for major birth defects, still birth, and macrosomia related morbidity.


Animal Data

In embryo-fetal development studies, sitagliptin administered to pregnant rats and rabbits during organogenesis (gestation day 6 to 20) did not adversely affect developmental outcomes at oral doses up to 250 mg/kg (30-times the 100 mg clinical dose) and 125 mg/kg (20-times the 100 mg clinical dose), respectively, based on AUC. Higher doses in rats associated with maternal toxicity increased the incidence of rib malformations in offspring at 1000 mg/kg, or approximately 100-times the clinical dose, based on AUC. Placental transfer of sitagliptin was observed in pregnant rats and rabbits.

Sitagliptin administered to female rats from gestation day 6 to lactation day 21 caused no functional or behavioral toxicity in offspring of rats at doses up to 1000 mg/kg.

8.2 Lactation

Risk Summary

There is no information regarding the presence of JANUVIA in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Sitagliptin is present in rat milk and therefore possibly present in human milk [see Data]. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for JANUVIA and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from JANUVIA or from the underlying maternal condition.


Sitagliptin is secreted in the milk of lactating rats at a milk to plasma ratio of 4:1.

8.4 Pediatric Use

The safety and effectiveness of JANUVIA have not been established in pediatric patients.

Three 20-week double-blind, placebo-controlled studies each with 34-week extensions were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sitagliptin in 410 pediatric patients aged 10 to 17 years with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes, with or without insulin therapy (HbA1c 6.5-10% for patients not on insulin, HbA1c 7-10% for patients on insulin). At study entry, patients in study 1 were not treated with oral antihyperglycemic agents; patients in studies 2 and 3 were on maximally tolerated metformin therapy. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change from baseline in HbA1c after 20 weeks of therapy. The pre-specified primary efficacy analyses included data from study 1 and pooled data from studies 2 and 3, regardless of glycemic rescue or treatment discontinuation.

In both efficacy analyses, the effect of treatment with sitagliptin was not significantly different from placebo. In study 1, the mean baseline HbA1c was 7.5%, and 12% of patients were on insulin therapy. At week 20, the change from baseline in HbA1c in patients treated with JANUVIA (N=95) was 0.06% compared to 0.23% in patients treated with placebo (N=95), a difference of -0.17% (95% CI: -0.62, 0.28). In studies 2 and 3, the mean baseline HbA1c was 8.0%, 15% of patients were on insulin and 72% were on metformin HCl doses of greater than 1,500 mg daily. At week 20, the change from baseline in HbA1c in patients treated with sitagliptin (N=107) was -0.23% compared to 0.09% in patients treated with placebo (N=113), a difference of -0.33% (95% CI: -0.70, 0.05).

8.5 Geriatric Use

Of the total number of subjects (N=3884) in pre-approval clinical safety and efficacy studies of JANUVIA, 725 patients were 65 years and over, while 61 patients were 75 years and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between subjects 65 years and over and younger subjects. While this and other reported clinical experience have not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.

Because sitagliptin is substantially excreted by the kidney, and because aging can be associated with reduced renal function, renal function should be assessed more frequently in elderly patients [see Dosage and Administration (2.2), Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].

8.6 Renal Impairment

Sitagliptin is excreted by the kidney, and sitagliptin exposure is increased in patients with renal impairment. Lower dosages are recommended in patients with eGFR less than 45 mL/min/1.73 m2 (moderate and severe renal impairment, as well as in ESRD patients requiring dialysis). [See Dosage and Administration (2.2); Clinical Pharmacology (12.3).]


In the event of an overdose with JANUVIA, contact the Poison Control Center.

In the event of an overdose, it is reasonable to employ supportive measures, e.g., remove unabsorbed material from the gastrointestinal tract, employ clinical monitoring (including obtaining an electrocardiogram), and institute supportive therapy as dictated by the patient’s clinical status.

Sitagliptin is modestly dialyzable. In clinical studies, approximately 13.5% of the dose was removed over a 3- to 4-hour hemodialysis session. Prolonged hemodialysis may be considered if clinically appropriate. It is not known if sitagliptin is dialyzable by peritoneal dialysis.


JANUVIA Tablets contain sitagliptin phosphate, an orally-active inhibitor of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) enzyme.

Sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate is described chemically as 7-[(3R)-3-amino-1-oxo-4-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)butyl]-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1,2,4-triazolo[4,3-a ]pyrazine phosphate (1:1) monohydrate.

The empirical formula is C16 H15 F6 N5 O•H3 PO4 •H2 O and the molecular weight is 523.32. The structural formula is:

image of sitagliptin chemical structure

Sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate is a white to off-white, crystalline, non-hygroscopic powder. It is soluble in water and N,N-dimethyl formamide; slightly soluble in methanol; very slightly soluble in ethanol, acetone, and acetonitrile; and insoluble in isopropanol and isopropyl acetate.

Each film-coated tablet of JANUVIA contains 32.13, 64.25, or 128.5 mg of sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate, which is equivalent to 25, 50, or 100 mg, respectively, of free base and the following inactive ingredients: microcrystalline cellulose, anhydrous dibasic calcium phosphate, croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate, and sodium stearyl fumarate. In addition, the film coating contains the following inactive ingredients: polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol, talc, titanium dioxide, red iron oxide, and yellow iron oxide.

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