JANUVIA (Page 4 of 8)

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

Sitagliptin is a DPP-4 inhibitor, which is believed to exert its actions in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus by slowing the inactivation of incretin hormones. Concentrations of the active intact hormones are increased by sitagliptin, thereby increasing and prolonging the action of these hormones. Incretin hormones, including glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), are released by the intestine throughout the day, and levels are increased in response to a meal. These hormones are rapidly inactivated by the enzyme, DPP-4. The incretins are part of an endogenous system involved in the physiologic regulation of glucose homeostasis. When blood glucose concentrations are normal or elevated, GLP-1 and GIP increase insulin synthesis and release from pancreatic beta cells by intracellular signaling pathways involving cyclic AMP. GLP-1 also lowers glucagon secretion from pancreatic alpha cells, leading to reduced hepatic glucose production. By increasing and prolonging active incretin levels, sitagliptin increases insulin release and decreases glucagon levels in the circulation in a glucose-dependent manner. Sitagliptin demonstrates selectivity for DPP-4 and does not inhibit DPP-8 or DPP-9 activity in vitro at concentrations approximating those from therapeutic doses.

12.2 Pharmacodynamics

General

In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, administration of sitagliptin led to inhibition of DPP-4 enzyme activity for a 24-hour period. After an oral glucose load or a meal, this DPP-4 inhibition resulted in a 2- to 3-fold increase in circulating levels of active GLP-1 and GIP, decreased glucagon concentrations, and increased responsiveness of insulin release to glucose, resulting in higher C-peptide and insulin concentrations. The rise in insulin with the decrease in glucagon was associated with lower fasting glucose concentrations and reduced glucose excursion following an oral glucose load or a meal.

In studies with healthy subjects, sitagliptin did not lower blood glucose or cause hypoglycemia.

Sitagliptin and Metformin hydrochloride Coadministration

In a two-day study in healthy subjects, sitagliptin alone increased active GLP-1 concentrations, whereas metformin alone increased active and total GLP-1 concentrations to similar extents. Coadministration of sitagliptin and metformin had an additive effect on active GLP-1 concentrations. Sitagliptin, but not metformin, increased active GIP concentrations. It is unclear how these findings relate to changes in glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Cardiac Electrophysiology

In a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study, 79 healthy subjects were administered a single oral dose of sitagliptin 100 mg, sitagliptin 800 mg (8 times the recommended dose), and placebo. At the recommended dose of 100 mg, there was no effect on the QTc interval obtained at the peak plasma concentration, or at any other time during the study. Following the 800 mg dose, the maximum increase in the placebo-corrected mean change in QTc from baseline was observed at 3 hours postdose and was 8.0 msec. This increase is not considered to be clinically significant. At the 800 mg dose, peak sitagliptin plasma concentrations were approximately 11 times higher than the peak concentrations following a 100-mg dose.

In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus administered sitagliptin 100 mg (N=81) or sitagliptin 200 mg (N=63) daily, there were no meaningful changes in QTc interval based on ECG data obtained at the time of expected peak plasma concentration.

12.3 Pharmacokinetics

The pharmacokinetics of sitagliptin have been extensively characterized in healthy subjects and patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Following a single oral 100-mg dose to healthy volunteers, mean plasma AUC of sitagliptin was 8.52 μM•hr, Cmax was 950 nM, and apparent terminal half-life (t1/2 ) was 12.4 hours. Plasma AUC of sitagliptin increased in a dose-proportional manner and increased approximately 14% following 100 mg doses at steady-state compared to the first dose. The intra-subject and inter-subject coefficients of variation for sitagliptin AUC were small (5.8% and 15.1%). The pharmacokinetics of sitagliptin was generally similar in healthy subjects and in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Absorption

After oral administration of a 100 mg dose to healthy subjects, sitagliptin was rapidly absorbed with peak plasma concentrations (median Tmax ) occurring 1 to 4 hours postdose. The absolute bioavailability of sitagliptin is approximately 87%.

Effect of Food

Coadministration of a high-fat meal with sitagliptin had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of sitagliptin.

Distribution

The mean volume of distribution at steady state following a single 100-mg intravenous dose of sitagliptin to healthy subjects is approximately 198 liters. The fraction of sitagliptin reversibly bound to plasma proteins is low (38%).

Elimination

Approximately 79% of sitagliptin is excreted unchanged in the urine with metabolism being a minor pathway of elimination. The apparent terminal t1/2 following a 100 mg oral dose of sitagliptin was approximately 12.4 hours and renal clearance was approximately 350 mL/min.

Metabolism

Following a [14 C]sitagliptin oral dose, approximately 16% of the radioactivity was excreted as metabolites of sitagliptin. Six metabolites were detected at trace levels and are not expected to contribute to the plasma DPP-4 inhibitory activity of sitagliptin. In vitro studies indicated that the primary enzyme responsible for the limited metabolism of sitagliptin was CYP3A4, with contribution from CYP2C8.

Excretion

Following administration of an oral [14 C]sitagliptin dose to healthy subjects, approximately 100% of the administered radioactivity was eliminated in feces (13%) or urine (87%) within one week of dosing.

Elimination of sitagliptin occurs primarily via renal excretion and involves active tubular secretion. Sitagliptin is a substrate for human organic anion transporter-3 (hOAT-3), which may be involved in the renal elimination of sitagliptin. The clinical relevance of hOAT-3 in sitagliptin transport has not been established. Sitagliptin is also a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which may also be involved in mediating the renal elimination of sitagliptin. However, cyclosporine, a P-gp inhibitor, did not reduce the renal clearance of sitagliptin.

Specific Populations

Patients with Renal Impairment

An approximately 2-fold increase in the plasma AUC of sitagliptin was observed in patients with moderate renal impairment with eGFR of 30 to less than 45 mL/min/1.73 m2 , and an approximately 4-fold increase was observed in patients with severe renal impairment, including patients with ESRD on hemodialysis, as compared to normal healthy control subjects.

Patients with Hepatic Impairment

In patients with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh score 7 to 9), mean AUC and Cmax of sitagliptin increased approximately 21% and 13%, respectively, compared to healthy matched controls following administration of a single 100-mg dose of sitagliptin. These differences are not considered to be clinically meaningful.

There is no clinical experience in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh score >9).

Effects of Age, Body Mass Index (BMI), Gender, and Race

Based on a population pharmacokinetic analysis or a composite analysis of available pharmacokinetic data, BMI, gender, and race do not have a clinically meaningful effect on the pharmacokinetics of sitagliptin. When the effects of age on renal function are taken into account, age alone did not have a clinically meaningful impact on the pharmacokinetics of sitagliptin based on a population pharmacokinetic analysis. Elderly subjects (65 to 80 years) had approximately 19% higher plasma concentrations of sitagliptin compared to younger subjects.

Drug Interaction Studies

In Vitro Assessment of Drug Interactions

Sitagliptin is not an inhibitor of CYP isozymes CYP3A4, 2C8, 2C9, 2D6, 1A2, 2C19 or 2B6, and is not an inducer of CYP3A4. Sitagliptin is a P-gp substrate, but does not inhibit P-gp mediated transport of digoxin. Based on these results, sitagliptin is considered unlikely to cause interactions with other drugs that utilize these pathways.

Sitagliptin is not extensively bound to plasma proteins. Therefore, the propensity of sitagliptin to be involved in clinically meaningful drug-drug interactions mediated by plasma protein binding displacement is very low.

In Vivo Assessment of Drug Interactions

Effects of Sitagliptin on Other Drugs

In clinical studies, sitagliptin did not meaningfully alter the pharmacokinetics of metformin, glyburide, simvastatin, rosiglitazone, digoxin, warfarin, or an oral contraceptive (ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone) (Table 4), providing in vivo evidence of a low propensity for causing drug interactions with substrates of CYP3A4, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, P-gp, and organic cationic transporter (OCT).

Table 4: Effect of Sitagliptin on Systemic Exposure of Coadministered Drugs
Coadministered Drug Dose of Coadministered Drug * Dose of Sitagliptin * Geometric Mean Ratio (ratio with/without sitagliptin) No Effect = 1.00
AUC Cmax
*
All doses administered as single dose unless otherwise specified.
AUC is reported as AUC 0-∞ unless otherwise specified.
Multiple dose.
§
AUC0-24hr .
AUC0-last .
#
AUC0-12hr .

Digoxin

0.25 mg once daily for 10 days

100 mg once daily for 10 days

Digoxin

1.11§

1.18

Glyburide

1.25 mg

200 mg once daily for 6 days

Glyburide

1.09

1.01

Simvastatin

20 mg

200 mg once daily for 5 days

Simvastatin

0.85

0.80

Simvastatin Acid

1.12

1.06

Rosiglitazone

4 mg

200 mg once daily for 5 days

Rosiglitazone

0.98

0.99

Warfarin

30 mg single dose on day 5

200 mg once daily for 11 days

S(-) Warfarin

0.95

0.89

R(+) Warfarin

0.99

0.89

Ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone

21 days once daily of 35 µg ethinyl estradiol with norethindrone 0.5 mg × 7 days, 0.75 mg × 7 days, 1.0 mg × 7 days

200 mg once daily for 21 days

Ethinyl estradiol

0.99

0.97

Norethindrone

1.03

0.98

Metformin HCl

1000 mg twice daily for 14 days

50 mg twice daily for 7 days

Metformin

1.02#

0.97

Effects of Other Drugs on Sitagliptin

Clinical data described below suggest that sitagliptin is not susceptible to clinically meaningful interactions by coadministered medications (Table 5).

Table 5: Effect of Coadministered Drugs on Systemic Exposure of Sitagliptin
Coadministered Drug Dose of Coadministered Drug * Dose of Sitagliptin * Geometric Mean Ratio (ratio with/without coadministered drug) No Effect = 1.00
AUC Cmax
*
All doses administered as single dose unless otherwise specified.
AUC is reported as AUC 0-∞ unless otherwise specified.
Multiple dose.
§
AUC0-12hr .

Cyclosporine

600 mg once daily

100 mg once daily

Sitagliptin

1.29

1.68

Metformin HCl

1000 mg twice daily for 14 days

50 mg twice daily for 7 days

Sitagliptin

1.02§

1.05

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