Kepivance

KEPIVANCE- palifermin injection
Amgen

Description

Kepivance (palifermin) is a human keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) produced by recombinant DNA technology in Escherichia coli (E coli). Kepivance is a water-soluble, 140 amino acid protein with a molecular weight of 16.3 kilodaltons. It differs from endogenous human KGF in that the first 23 N-terminal amino acids have been deleted to improve protein stability.

Kepivance is supplied as a sterile, white, preservative-free, lyophilized powder for IV injection after reconstitution with 1.2 mL of Sterile Water for Injection, USP. Reconstitution yields a clear, colorless solution of Kepivance (5 mg/mL) with a pH of 6.5. Each single-use vial of Kepivance contains 6.25 mg palifermin, 50 mg mannitol, 25 mg sucrose, 1.94 mg L-histidine, and 0.13 mg polysorbate 20 (0.01% w/v).

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Mechanism of Action

Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is an endogenous protein in the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family that binds to the KGF receptor. Binding of KGF to its receptor has been reported to result in proliferation, differentiation, and migration of epithelial cells. The KGF receptor, one of four receptors in the FGF family, has been reported to be present on epithelial cells in many tissues examined including the tongue, buccal mucosa, esophagus, stomach, intestine, salivary gland, lung, liver, pancreas, kidney, bladder, mammary gland, skin (hair follicles and sebaceous gland), and the lens of the eye. The KGF receptor has been reported to not be present on cells of the hematopoietic lineage. Endogenous KGF is produced by mesenchymal cells and is upregulated in response to epithelial tissue injury.

In mice and rats, Kepivance enhanced proliferation of epithelial cells (as measured by Ki67 immunohistochemical staining and BrDU uptake) and demonstrated an increase in tissue thickness of the tongue, buccal mucosa, and gastrointestinal tract. Kepivance has been studied in murine models of chemotherapy and radiation-induced gastrointestinal injury. In such models, administration of Kepivance prior to and/or after the cytotoxic insult improved survival and reduced weight loss compared to control animals.

Kepivance has been shown to enhance the growth of human epithelial tumor cell lines in vitro at concentrations ≥ 10 mcg/mL (> 15-fold higher than average therapeutic concentrations in humans). In nude mouse xenograft models, three consecutive daily treatments of Kepivance at doses of 1,500 and 4,000 mcg/kg (25- and 67-fold higher than the recommended human dose, respectively) repeated weekly for 4 to 6 weeks were associated with a dose-dependent increase in the growth rate of 1 of 7 KGF receptor-expressing human tumor cell lines.

Pharmacokinetics

The pharmacokinetics of Kepivance were studied in healthy subjects and patients with hematologic malignancies. After single IV doses of 20 to 250 mcg/kg (healthy subjects) and 60 mcg/kg (cancer patients), Kepivance concentrations declined rapidly (over 95% decrease) in the first 30 minutes post-dose. A slight increase or plateau in concentration occurred at approximately 1 to 4 hours, followed by a terminal decline phase. Kepivance exhibited linear pharmacokinetics with extravascular distribution. On average, total body clearance (CL) appeared to be 2- to 4-fold higher, and volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) to be 2-fold higher in cancer patients compared with healthy subjects after a 60 mcg/kg single dose of Kepivance. The elimination half-life was similar between healthy subjects and cancer patients (average 4.5 hours with a range of 3.3 to 5.7 hours). No accumulation of Kepivance occurred after 3 consecutive daily doses of 20 and 40 mcg/kg in healthy volunteers or 60 mcg/kg in cancer patients.

Pharmacodynamics

Epithelial cell proliferation was assessed by Ki67 immunohistochemical staining in healthy subjects. A 3-fold or greater increase in Ki67 staining was observed in buccal biopsies from 3 of 6 healthy subjects given Kepivance at 40 mcg/kg/day IV for 3 days, when measured 24 hours after the third dose. Dose-dependent epithelial cell proliferation was observed in healthy subjects given single IV doses of 120 to 250 mcg/kg 48 hours post-dosing.

Special Populations

No gender-related differences were observed in the pharmacokinetics of Kepivance at doses ≤ 60 mcg/kg. The pharmacokinetic profile in pediatric populations (see PRECAUTIONS: Pediatric Use), or in patients with hepatic insufficiency, has not been assessed.

Geriatric Use: No age-related differences were observed in the pharmacokinetics of Kepivance ≤ 180 mcg/kg. (see PRECAUTIONS: Geriatric Use)

Renal Impairment: Results from a pharmacokinetics study in 24 subjects with varying degrees of renal impairment demonstrated that renal impairment has little or no influence on Kepivance pharmacokinetics. No dose adjustment is recommended for patients with renal impairment.

CLINICAL STUDIES

The safety and efficacy of Kepivance were established in a randomized placebo-controlled clinical study of 212 patients (Study 1) and a randomized, schedule-ranging, placebo-controlled clinical study of 169 patients (Study 2).

In Study 1, patients received high-dose cytotoxic therapy consisting of fractionated total-body irradiation (TBI) (12 Gy total dose), high-dose etoposide (60 mg/kg), and high-dose cyclophosphamide (100 mg/kg) followed by peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) support for the treatment of hematological malignancies (NHL, Hodgkin’s disease, AML, ALL, CML, CLL, or multiple myeloma). Patients were randomized to receive either Kepivance (n = 106) or placebo (n = 106). Kepivance was administered as a daily IV injection of 60 mcg/kg for 3 consecutive days prior to initiation of cytotoxic therapy and for 3 consecutive days following infusion of PBPC.

The main efficacy endpoint of Study 1 was the number of days during which patients experienced severe oral mucositis (Grade 3/4 on the WHO [World Health Organization] scale).1 Other endpoints included the incidence, duration, and severity of oral mucositis and the requirement for opioid analgesia. There was no evidence of a delay in time to hematopoietic recovery in patients who received Kepivance as compared to patients who received placebo.

The efficacy results are presented in Table 1 and Figure 1.

Table 1. Efficacy Outcomes in Study 1
Kepivance
(60 mcg/kg/day)
(n = 106)
Placebo
(n = 106)
*
P < 0.001 compared to placebo, using Generalized Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel (CMH) test stratified for study center. P-values presented for primary endpoint only.
WHO Oral Mucositis Scale: Grade 1 = soreness/erythema; Grade 2 = erythema, ulcers, can eat solids; Grade 3 = ulcers, requires liquid diet only; Grade 4 = alimentation not possible.
Median * (25th, 75th percentile) Days of WHO Grade 3/4 Oral Mucositis 3 (0, 6) 9 (6, 13)
Incidence of WHO Grade 3/4 Oral Mucositis 63% (67/106) 98% (104/106)
Median (25th , 75th percentile) Days of WHO Grade 3/4 Oral Mucositis in Affected Patients 6 (3, 8)
(n = 67)
9 (6, 13)
(n = 104)
Incidence of WHO Grade 4 Oral Mucositis 20% 62%
Median (25th , 75th percentile) Days of WHO Grade 2/3/4 Oral Mucositis 8 (4, 12) 14 (11, 19)

Opioid Analgesia for Oral Mucositis:

Median (25th , 75th percentile) Days

th , 75th percentile) Cumulative Dose (morphine mg equivalents)


7 (1, 10)

212 (3, 558)


11 (8, 14)

535 (269, 1429)

Image from Drug Label Content
(click image for full-size original)

WHO Oral Mucositis Scale: Grade 1 = soreness/erythema; Grade 2 = erythema, ulcers, can eat solids; Grade 3 = ulcers, requires liquid diet only; Grade 4 = alimentation not possible.

In Study 1, patients used a daily diary to record the amount of mouth and throat soreness. Compared with placebo-treated patients, Kepivance-treated patients reported less mouth and throat soreness.

Study 2 was a randomized, multi-center, placebo-controlled study comparing varying schedules of Kepivance. All patients received high-dose cytotoxic therapy consisting of fractionated TBI (12cGy total dose), high-dose etoposide (60 mg/kg), and high-dose cyclophosphamide (75-100 mg/kg) followed by PBPC support for the treatment of hematological malignancies (NHL, Hodgkin’s disease, AML, ALL, CML, CLL, or multiple myeloma).

The results of Study 1 were supported by results observed in the subset of patients in Study 2 who received the same dose and schedule of Kepivance as given in Study 1. Compared with placebo, there was a reduction in median days of WHO Grade 3/4 oral mucositis (4 vs 6 days), lower incidence of WHO Grade 3/4 oral mucositis (67% vs 80%) and lower incidence of WHO Grade 4 oral mucositis (26% vs. 50%) for Kepivance.

The results of Study 1 were supported by results observed in the subset of patients in Study 2 who received the same dose and schedule of Kepivance as given in Study 1. Compared with placebo, there was a reduction in median days of WHO Grade 3/4 oral mucositis (4 vs 6 days), lower incidence of WHO Grade 3/4 oral mucositis (67% vs 80%) and lower incidence of WHO Grade 4 oral mucositis (26% vs. 50%) for Kepivance.

One of the schedules tested in Study 2 randomized patients to receive Kepivance for 3 consecutive days prior to initiation of cytotoxic therapy, a dose given on the last day of TBI prior to etoposide, and for 3 consecutive days following infusion of PBPC. This arm was prematurely closed by the Safety Committee after enrollment of 35 patients due to lack of efficacy and a trend towards increased severity and duration of oral mucositis as compared to placebo-treated patients. This finding was attributed to administration of Kepivance within 24 hours of chemotherapy, resulting in an increased sensitivity of the rapidly dividing epithelial cells in the immediate post-chemotherapy period (see PRECAUTIONS: Drug Interactions and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

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