KETALAR- ketamine hydrochloride injection
General Injectables & Vaccines, Inc
KETALAR (ketamine hydrochloride) injection is indicated:
- as the sole anesthetic agent for diagnostic and surgical procedures that do not require skeletal muscle relaxation.
- for the induction of anesthesia prior to the administration of other general anesthetic agents.
- as a supplement to other anesthetic agents.
2.1 Important Dosage and Administration Information
KETALAR should be administered by or under the direction of physicians experienced in the administration of general anesthetics, maintenance of a patent airway, and oxygenation and ventilation. Continuously monitor vital signs in patients receiving KETALAR.
Emergency airway equipment must be immediately available.
Do not administer the 100 mg/mL concentration of KETALAR intravenously without proper dilution [see Dosage and Administration (2.3)]. Must be used immediately after dilution.
While some degree of airway protection may be afforded due to active laryngeal-pharyngeal reflexes, vomiting and aspiration may occur with KETALAR. KETALAR is not recommended for use in patients who have not followed nil per os guidelines.
Due to the potential for salivation during KETALAR administration, administer an antisialagogue prior to induction of anesthesia.
In individuals with a history of chronic ketamine use for off-label indications, there have been case reports of genitourinary pain that may be related to the ketamine treatment, not the underlying condition [see Adverse Reactions (6)]. Consider cessation of ketamine if genitourinary pain continues in the setting of other genitourinary symptoms.
2.2 Recommended Dosage and Administration
The KETALAR dosage must be individualized and titrated to the desired clinical effect.
If a longer duration of effect is desired, additional increments can be administered intravenously or intramuscularly to maintain anesthesia. However, a higher total dose will result in a longer time to complete recovery.
Induction of Anesthesia
Intravenous Route: The initial dose of KETALAR administered intravenously may range from 1 mg/kg to 4.5 mg/kg. The average amount required to produce 5 to 10 minutes of surgical anesthesia within 30 seconds following injection is 2 mg/kg. Administer KETALAR slowly (i.e., over a period of 60 seconds). Rapid administration may result in respiratory depression and enhanced vasopressor response. The induction dose may be administered as an intravenous infusion at a rate of 0.5 mg/kg/min.
Intramuscular Route: The initial dose of KETALAR administered intramuscularly may range from 6.5 to 13 mg/kg. A dose of 9 to 13 mg/kg usually produces surgical anesthesia within 3 to 4 minutes following injection, with the anesthetic effect usually lasting 12 to 25 minutes. Administer a benzodiazepine, if clinically indicated, for the prevention of neuropsychological manifestations during emergence from anesthesia.
Maintenance of Anesthesia
Adjust the maintenance dose according to the patient’s anesthetic needs and whether an additional anesthetic agent is administered.
Repeat increments of one-half to the full induction dose as needed for maintenance of anesthesia. Purposeless and tonic-clonic movements of extremities may occur during the course of ketamine anesthesia. These movements do not imply a light plane and are not indicative of the need for additional doses of the anesthetic.
KETALAR given by slow microdrip infusion technique at a dose of 0.1 to 0.5 mg/minute will maintain general anesthesia in adult patients induced with KETALAR. Augment KETALAR with an intravenous benzodiazepine for the prevention of neuropsychological manifestations during emergence.
Supplement to Other Anesthetic Agents
KETALAR can be administered to supplement other general and local anesthetic agents. Continuously monitor patients for changes in respiratory and hemodynamic parameters.
A reduced dose of KETALAR can be used to produce balanced anesthesia when used in combination with other anesthetic agents.
2.3 Preparation of Dilution
KETALAR is a clear, colorless sterile solution. Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. Discard if product is discolored or contains particulate matter.
Induction of Anesthesia: Do not intravenously inject the 100 mg/mL concentration of KETALAR without proper dilution. Dilute KETALAR with an equal volume of either Sterile Water for injection, USP, 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP (Normal Saline), or 5% Dextrose in Water. Use immediately after dilution.
Maintenance of Anesthesia: To prepare a dilute solution containing 1 mg of ketamine per mL, aseptically transfer 10 mL from a 50 mg per mL vial or 5 mL from a 100 mg per mL vial to 500 mL of 5% Dextrose Injection, USP or 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP (Normal Saline) and mix well. The resultant solution will contain 1 mg of ketamine per mL. Use immediately after dilution.
When fluid restriction is required, KETALAR can be added to a 250 mL infusion as described above to provide a KETALAR concentration of 2 mg/mL.
KETALAR 10 mg/mL vials are not recommended for dilution.
KETALAR injection is a clear, colorless, sterile solution available in multiple-dose vials containing either 10 mg ketamine base (equivalent to 11.53 mg ketamine hydrochloride), 50 mg ketamine base (equivalent to 57.67 mg ketamine hydrochloride) or 100 mg ketamine base (equivalent to 115.33 mg ketamine hydrochloride).
- 200 mg/20 mL (10 mg/mL)
- 500 mg/10 mL (50 mg/mL)
- 500 mg/5 mL (100 mg/mL)
- KETALAR is contraindicated in patients for whom a significant elevation of blood pressure would constitute a serious hazard [see Warnings and Precautions(5.1)].
- KETALAR is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to ketamine or to any excipient [see Adverse Reactions(6)].
5.1 Hemodynamic Instability
Transient increases in blood pressure, heart rate, and cardiac index are frequently observed following administration of KETALAR. Decreases in blood pressure and heart rate, arrhythmias, and cardiac decompensation have also been observed. Monitor vital signs and cardiac function during KETALAR administration. KETALAR is contraindicated in patients for whom a significant elevation of blood pressure would constitute a serious hazard [see Contraindications (4)].
5.2 Emergence Reactions
Emergence delirium (postoperative confusional states or agitation) has occurred in approximately 12% of patients during the recovery period, and the duration is generally a few hours. The neuropsychological manifestations vary in severity between pleasant dream-like states, vivid imagery, hallucinations, and emergence delirium. In some cases, these states have been accompanied by confusion, excitement, and irrational behavior, which have been recalled as unpleasant experiences. No residual psychological effects are known to have resulted from use of KETALAR during induction and maintenance of anesthesia.
Intramuscular administration results in a lower incidence of emergence reactions.
The incidence of psychological manifestations during emergence, particularly dream-like observations and emergence delirium, may be reduced by using lower recommended dosages of KETALAR in conjunction with an intravenous benzodiazepine during induction and maintenance of anesthesia [see Dosage and Administration (2.3)]. Also, these reactions may be reduced if verbal, tactile, and visual stimulation of the patient is minimized during the recovery period. This does not preclude the monitoring of vital signs.
5.3 Respiratory Depression
Respiratory depression may occur with overdosage or a rapid rate of administration of KETALAR. Maintain adequate oxygenation and ventilation.
5.4 Risks of Ketalar Alone for Procedures of the Pharynx, Larynx, or Bronchial Tree
KETALAR does not suppress pharyngeal and laryngeal reflexes. Avoid KETALAR administration as a sole anesthetic agent during procedures of the pharynx, larynx, or bronchial tree, including mechanical stimulation of the pharynx. Muscle relaxants may be required for successful completion of procedures of the pharynx, larynx, or bronchial tree.
5.5 Pediatric Neurotoxicity
Published animal studies demonstrate that the administration of anesthetic and sedation drugs that block NMDA receptors and/or potentiate GABA activity increase neuronal apoptosis in the developing brain and result in long-term cognitive deficits when used for longer than 3 hours. The clinical significance of these findings is not clear. However, based on the available data, the window of vulnerability to these changes is believed to correlate with exposures in the third trimester of gestation through the first several months of life, but may extend out to approximately three years of age in humans [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1, 8.4), Nonclinical Toxicology (13.2)].
Some published studies in children suggest that similar deficits may occur after repeated or prolonged exposures to anesthetic agents early in life and may result in adverse cognitive or behavioral effects. These studies have substantial limitations, and it is not clear if the observed effects are due to the anesthetic/sedation drug administration or other factors such as the surgery or underlying illness.
Anesthetic and sedation drugs are a necessary part of the care of children needing surgery, other procedures, or tests that cannot be delayed, and no specific medications have been shown to be safer than any other. Decisions regarding the timing of any elective procedures requiring anesthesia should take into consideration the benefits of the procedure weighed against the potential risks.
5.6 Drug-Induced Liver Injury
Ketamine administration is associated with hepatobiliary dysfunction (most often a cholestatic pattern), with recurrent use (e.g., misuse/abuse or medically supervised unapproved indications). Obtain baseline LFTs, including alkaline phosphatase and gamma glutamyl transferase, in patients receiving ketamine as part of a treatment plan that utilizes recurrent dosing. Monitor those receiving recurrent ketamine at periodic intervals during treatment.
5.7 Increase in Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure
An increase in intracranial pressure has been reported following administration of ketamine hydrochloride. Patients with elevated intracranial pressure should be in a monitored setting with frequent neurologic assessments.
5.8 Drug Interactions
Theophylline or Aminophylline: Concomitant administration of KETALAR and theophylline or aminophylline may lower the seizure threshold [see Drug Interactions (7.1)]. Consider using an alternative to KETALAR in patients receiving theophylline or aminophylline.
Sympathomimetics and Vasopressin: Sympathomimetics and vasopressin may enhance the sympathomimetic effects of ketamine [see Drug Interactions (7.2)]. Closely monitor vital signs when KETALAR and sympathomimetics or vasopressin are co-administered and consider dose adjustment individualized to the patient’s clinical situation.
Benzodiazepines, Opioid Analgesics, or Other CNS Depressants
Concomitant use of ketamine with opioid analgesics, benzodiazepines, or other central nervous system (CNS) depressants, including alcohol, may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death [see Drug Interactions (7.3)]. Closely monitor neurological status and respiratory parameters, including respiratory rate and pulse oximetry, when KETALR and opioid analgesics, benzodiazepines, or other CNS depressants are co-administered. Consider dose adjustment individualized to the patient’s clinical situation.
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