Ketoprofen (Page 5 of 7)

Probenecid

Probenecid increases both free and bound ketoprofen by reducing the plasma clearance of ketoprofen to about one-third, as well as decreasing its protein binding. Therefore, the combination of ketoprofen and probenecid is not recommended.

Warfarin

The effects of warfarin and NSAIDs on GI bleeding are synergistic, such that users of both drugs together have a risk of serious GI bleeding higher than users of either drug alone. In a short-term controlled study in 14 normal volunteers, ketoprofen did not significantly interfere with the effect of warfarin on prothrombin time. Bleeding from a number of sites may be a complication of warfarin treatment and GI bleeding a complication of ketoprofen treatment. Because prostaglandins play an important role in hemostasis and ketoprofen has an effect on platelet function as well (see Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions , Effect on Blood Coagulation), concurrent therapy with ketoprofen and warfarin requires close monitoring of patients on both drugs.

Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions

Effect on Blood Coagulation

Ketoprofen decreases platelet adhesion and aggregation. Therefore, it can prolong bleeding time by approximately 3 to 4 minutes from baseline values. There is no significant change in platelet count, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, or thrombin time.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Chronic oral toxicity studies in mice (up to 32 mg/kg/day; 96 mg/m2 /day) did not indicate a carcinogenic potential for ketoprofen. The maximum recommended human therapeutic dose is 300 mg/day for a 60 kg patient with a body surface area of 1.6 m2 , which is 5 mg/kg/day or 185 mg/m2 /day. Thus the mice were treated at 0.5 times the maximum human daily dose based on surface area.

A 2 year carcinogenicity study in rats, using doses up to 6.0 mg/kg/day (36 mg/m2 /day), showed no evidence of tumorigenic potential. All groups were treated for 104 weeks except the females receiving 6.0 mg/kg/day (36 mg/m2 /day) where the drug treatment was terminated in week 81 because of low survival; the remaining rats were sacrificed after week 87. Their survival in the groups treated for 104 weeks was within 6% of the control group. An earlier 2 year study with doses up to 12.5 mg/kg/day (75 mg/m2 /day) also showed no evidence of tumorigenicity, but the survival rate was low and the study was therefore judged inconclusive. Ketoprofen did not show mutagenic potential in the Ames Test. Ketoprofen administered to male rats (up to 9 mg/kg/day; or 54 mg/m2 /day) had no significant effect on reproductive performance or fertility. In female rats administered 6 or 9 mg/kg/day (36 or 54 mg/m2 /day), a decrease in the number of implantation sites has been noted. The dosages of 36 mg/m2 /day in rats represent 0.2 times the maximum recommended human dose of 185 mg/m2 /day (see above).

Abnormal spermatogenesis or inhibition of spermatogenesis developed in rats and dogs at high doses, and a decrease in the weight of the testes occurred in dogs and baboons at high doses.

Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects

Pregnancy category C

In teratology studies ketoprofen administered to mice at doses up to 12 mg/kg/day (36 mg/m2 /day) and rats at doses up to 9 mg/kg/day (54 mg/m2 /day), the approximate equivalent of 0.2 times the maximum recommended therapeutic dose of 185 mg/m2 /day, showed no teratogenic or embryotoxic effects. In separate studies in rabbits, maternally toxic doses were associated with embryotoxicity but not teratogenicity. However, animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Ketoprofen capsules should be used in pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Nonteratogenic Effects

Because of the known effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the fetal cardiovascular system (closure of ductus arteriosus), use during pregnancy (particularly late pregnancy) should be avoided.

Labor and Delivery

The effects of ketoprofen on labor and delivery in pregnant women are unknown. Studies in rats have shown ketoprofen at doses of 6 mg/kg (36 mg/m2 /day, approximately equal to 0.2 times the maximum recommended human dose) prolongs pregnancy when given before the onset of labor. Because of the known effects of prostaglandin-inhibiting drugs on the fetal cardiovascular system (closure of ductus arteriosus), use of ketoprofen during late pregnancy should be avoided.

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Data on secretion in human milk after ingestion of ketoprofen do not exist. In rats, ketoprofen at doses of 9 mg/kg (54 mg/m2 /day; approximately 0.3 times the maximum human therapeutic dose) did not affect perinatal development. Upon administration to lactating dogs, the milk concentration of ketoprofen was found to be 4 to 5% of the plasma drug level. As with other drugs that are excreted in milk, ketoprofen is not recommended for use in nursing mothers.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of 18 have not been established.

Geriatric Use

As with any NSAIDs, caution should be exercised in treating the elderly (65 years and older). In pharmacokinetic studies, ketoprofen clearance was reduced in older patients receiving ketoprofen capsules, compared with younger patients. Peak ketoprofen concentrations and free drug AUC were increased in older patients (see Special Populations). The glucuronide conjugate of ketoprofen, which can serve as a potential reservoir for the parent drug, is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection. It is recommended that the initial dosage of ketoprofen capsules should be reduced for patients over 75 years of age and it may be useful to monitor renal function (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). In addition, the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Elderly patients may be more sensitive to the antiprostaglandin effects of NSAIDs (on the gastrointestinal tract and kidneys) than younger patients (see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS). In particular, elderly or debilitated patients who receive NSAID therapy seem to tolerate gastrointestinal ulceration or bleeding less well than other individuals, and most spontaneous reports of fatal GI events are in this population. Therefore, caution should be exercised in treating the elderly, and when individualizing their dosage, extra care should be taken when increasing the dose (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

In ketoprofen capsule clinical studies involving a total of 1540 osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis patients, 369 (24%) were ≥ 65 years of age, and 92 (6%) were ≥ 75 years of age. For ketoprofen capsule acute pain studies, 23 (5%) of 484 patients were ≥ 60 years of age. No overall differences in effectiveness were observed between these patients and younger patients.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

The incidence of common adverse reactions (above 1%) was obtained from a population of 835 ketoprofen-treated patients in double-blind trials lasting from 4 to 54 weeks and in 622 patients treated with ketoprofen extended-release capsules in trials lasting from 4 to 16 weeks.

Minor gastrointestinal side effects predominated; upper gastrointestinal symptoms were more common than lower gastrointestinal symptoms. In crossover trials in 321 patients with rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis, there was no difference in either upper or lower gastrointestinal symptoms between patients treated with 200 mg of ketoprofen extended-release capsules once a day or 75 mg of ketoprofen immediate-release capsules TID (255 mg/day). Peptic ulcer or GI bleeding occurred in controlled clinical trials in less than 1% of 1,076 patients; however, in open label continuation studies in 1,292 patients, the rate was greater than 2%.

The incidence of peptic ulceration in patients on NSAIDs is dependent on many risk factors including age, sex, smoking, alcohol use, diet, stress, concomitant drugs such as aspirin and corticosteroids, as well as the dose and duration of treatment with NSAIDs (see WARNINGS).

Gastrointestinal reactions were followed in frequency by central nervous system side effects, such as headache, dizziness, or drowsiness. The incidence of some adverse reactions appears to be dose-related (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Rare adverse reactions (incidence less than 1%) were collected from one or more of the following sources: foreign reports to manufacturers and regulatory agencies, publications, U.S. clinical trials, and/or U.S. postmarketing spontaneous reports.

Reactions are listed below under body system, then by incidence or number of cases in decreasing incidence.

Incidence Greater Than 1% (Probable Causal Relationship)

Digestive: Dyspepsia (11%), nausea* , abdominal pain* , diarrhea* , constipation* , flatulence* , anorexia, vomiting, stomatitis.

Nervous System: Headache* , dizziness, CNS inhibition (i.e., pooled reports of somnolence, malaise, depression, etc.) or excitation (i.e., insomnia, nervousness, dreams, etc.)*.

Special Senses: Tinnitus, visual disturbance.

Skin and Appendages: Rash.

Urogenital: Impairment of renal function (edema, increased BUN)* , signs or symptoms of urinary-tract irritation.

* Adverse events occurring in 3 to 9% of patients.

Incidence Less Than 1% (Probable Causal Relationship)

Body as a Whole: Chills, facial edema, infection, pain, allergic reaction, anaphylaxis.

Cardiovascular: Hypertension, palpitation, tachycardia, congestive heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, vasodilation.

Digestive: Appetite increased, dry mouth, eructation, gastritis, rectal hemorrhage, melena, fecal occult blood, salivation, peptic ulcer, gastrointestinal perforation, hematemesis, intestinal ulceration, hepatic dysfunction, hepatitis, cholestatic hepatitis, jaundice.

Hemic: Hypocoagulability, agranulocytosis, anemia, hemolysis, purpura, thrombocytopenia.

Metabolic and Nutritional: Thirst, weight gain, weight loss, hyponatremia.

Musculoskeletal: Myalgia.

Nervous System: Amnesia, confusion, impotence, migraine, paresthesia, vertigo.

Respiratory: Dyspnea, hemoptysis, epistaxis, pharyngitis, rhinitis, bronchospasm, laryngeal edema.

Skin and Appendages: Alopecia, eczema, pruritus, purpuric rash, sweating, urticaria, bullous rash, exfoliative dermatitis, photosensitivity, skin discoloration, onycholysis, toxic epidermal necrolysis, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome.

Special Senses: Conjunctivitis, conjunctivitis sicca, eye pain, hearing impairment, retinal hemorrhage and pigmentation change, taste perversion.

Urogenital: Menometrorrhagia, hematuria, renal failure, interstitial nephritis, nephrotic syndrome.

Incidence Less Than 1% (Causal Relationship Unknown)

The following rare adverse reactions, whose causal relationship to ketoprofen is uncertain, are being listed to serve as alerting information to the physician.

Body as a Whole: Septicemia, shock.

Cardiovascular: Arrhythmias, myocardial infarction.

Digestive: Buccal necrosis, ulcerative colitis, microvesicular steatosis, pancreatitis.

Endocrine: Diabetes mellitus (aggravated).

Nervous System: Dysphoria, hallucination, libido disturbance, nightmares, personality disorder, aseptic meningitis.

Urogenital: Acute tubulopathy, gynecomastia

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