KETOROLAC TROMETHAMINE (Page 6 of 8)

Nursing Mothers

After a single administration of 10 mg of oral ketorolac tromethamine to humans, the maximum milk concentration observed was 7.3 ng/mL, and the maximum milk-to-plasma ratio was 0.037. After 1 day of dosing (qid), the maximum milk concentration was 7.9 ng/mL, and the maximum milk-to-plasma ratio was 0.025. Because of the possible adverse effects of prostaglandin-inhibiting drugs on neonates, use in nursing mothers is contraindicated.

Pediatric Use

Ketorolac tromethamine is not indicated for use in pediatric patients. The safety and effectiveness of ketorolac tromethamine in pediatric patients below the age of 17 have not been established.

Geriatric Use

(≥65 Years of Age)

Because ketorolac tromethamine may be cleared more slowly by the elderly (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY) who are also more sensitive to the dose-related adverse effects of NSAIDs (see WARNINGS — Gastrointestinal Effects — Risk of Ulceration, Bleeding, and Perforation), extreme caution, reduced dosages (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION), and careful clinical monitoring must be used when treating the elderly with ketorolac tromethamine.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

Adverse reaction rates increase with higher doses of ketorolac tromethamine. Practitioners should be alert for the severe complications of treatment with ketorolac tromethamine, such as G.I. ulceration, bleeding and perforation, postoperative bleeding, acute renal failure, anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions and liver failure (see Boxed WARNING, WARNINGS, PRECAUTIONS, and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). These NSAID-related complications can be serious in certain patients for whom ketorolac tromethamine is indicated, especially when the drug is used inappropriately.

In patients taking ketorolac tromethamine or other NSAIDs in clinical trials, the most frequently reported adverse experiences in approximately 1% to 10% of patients are:

*Incidence greater than 10%

Gastrointestinal (GI) experiences including:
abdominal pain constipation/diarrhea Dyspepsia
flatulence GI fullness GI ulcers (gastric/duodenal)
gross bleeding/perforation heartburn nausea*
stomatitis vomiting
Other experiences:
abnormal renal function anemia dizziness
drowsiness edema elevated liver enzymes
headaches* hypertension increased bleeding time
injection site pain pruritus purpura
rashes tinnitus sweating

Additional adverse experiences reported occasionally (<1% in patients taking ketorolac tromethamine or other NSAIDs in clinical trials) include:

Body as a Whole: fever, infections, sepsis

Cardiovascular: congestive heart failure, palpitation, pallor, tachycardia, syncope

Dermatologic: alopecia, photosensitivity, urticaria

Gastrointestinal: anorexia, dry mouth, eructation, esophagitis, excessive thirst, gastritis, glossitis, hematemesis, hepatitis, increased appetite, jaundice, melena, rectal bleeding

Hemic and Lymphatic: ecchymosis, eosinophilia, epistaxis, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia

Metabolic and Nutritional: weight change

Nervous System: abnormal dreams, abnormal thinking, anxiety, asthenia, confusion, depression, euphoria, extrapyramidal symptoms, hallucinations, hyperkinesis, inability to concentrate, insomnia, nervousness, paresthesia, somnolence, stupor, tremors, vertigo, malaise

Reproductive, female: infertility

Respiratory: asthma, cough, dyspnea, pulmonary edema, rhinitis

Special Senses: abnormal taste, abnormal vision, blurred vision, hearing loss

Urogenital: cystitis, dysuria, hematuria, increased urinary frequency, interstitial nephritis, oliguria/polyuria, proteinuria, renal failure, urinary retention

Other rarely observed reactions (reported from postmarketing experience in patients taking ketorolac tromethamine or other NSAIDs) are:

Body as a Whole: angioedema, death, hypersensitivity reactions such as anaphylaxis, anaphylactoid reaction, laryngeal edema, tongue edema (see WARNINGS), myalgia

Cardiovascular: arrhythmia, bradycardia, chest pain, flushing, hypotension, myocardial infarction, vasculitis

Dermatologic: exfoliative dermatitis, erythema multiforme, Lyell’s syndrome, bullous reactions including Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis

Gastrointestinal: acute pancreatitis, liver failure, ulcerative stomatitis, exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease)

Hemic and Lymphatic: agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, hemolytic anemia, lymphadenopathy, pancytopenia, post operative wound hemorrhage (rarely requiring blood transfusion — see Boxed WARNING, WARNINGS, and PRECAUTIONS)

Metabolic and Nutritional: hyperglycemia, hyperkalemia, hyponatremia

Nervous System: aseptic meningitis, convulsions, coma, psychosis

Respiratory: bronchospasm, respiratory depression, pneumonia

Special Senses: conjunctivitis

Urogenital: flank pain with or without hematuria and/or azotemia, hemolytic uremic syndrome

Postmarketing Surveillance Study

A large postmarketing observational, nonrandomized study, involving approximately 10,000 patients receiving ketorolac tromethamine, demonstrated that the risk of clinically serious gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding was dose-dependent (see Tables 3A and 3B). This was particularly true in elderly patients who received an average daily dose greater than 60 mg/day of ketorolac tromethamine (see Table 3A).

Table 3: Incidence of Clinically Serious G.I. Bleeding as Related to Age, Total Daily Dose, and History of G.I. Perforation, Ulcer, Bleeding (PUB) after up to 5 Days of Treatment with Ketorolac Tromethamine Injection
A. Adult Patients without History of PUB
Total Daily Dose of Ketorolac Tromethamine Injection
Age of Patients ≤60 mg >60 to 90 mg >90 to 120 mg >120 mg
<65 years of age 0.4% 0.4% 0.9% 4.6%
≥65 years of age 1.2% 2.8% 2.2% 7.7%
B. Patients with History of PUB
Total Daily Dose of Ketorolac Tromethamine Injection
Age of Patients ≤60 mg >60 to 90 mg >90 to 120 mg >120 mg
<65 years of age 2.1% 4.6% 7.8% 15.4%
≥65 years of age 4.7% 3.7% 2.8% 25%

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