Klofensaid II (Page 3 of 7)

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

In non – U.S. postmarketing surveillance, the following adverse reactions have been reported during post-approval use of diclofenac sodium topical solution. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Body as a Whole: abdominal pain, accidental injury, allergic reaction, asthenia, back pain, body odor, chest pain, edema, face edema, halitosis, headache, lack of drug effect, neck rigidity, pain

Cardiovascular: palpitation, cardiovascular disorder

Digestive: diarrhea, dry mouth, dyspepsia, gastroenteritis, decreased appetite, mouth ulceration, nausea, rectal hemorrhage, ulcerative stomatitis

Metabolic and Nutritional: creatinine increased

Musculoskeletal: leg cramps, myalgia

Nervous: depression, dizziness, drowsiness, lethargy, paresthesia, paresthesia at application site

Respiratory: asthma, dyspnea, laryngismus, laryngitis, pharyngitis

Skin and Appendages: At the Application Site: contact dermatitis, contact dermatitis with vesicles, dry skin, pruritus, rash; Other Skin and Appendages Adverse Reactions: eczema, rash, pruritus, skin discoloration, urticaria

Special senses: abnormal vision, blurred vision, cataract, ear pain, eye disorder, eye pain, taste perversion

7. DRUG INTERACTIONS

Drug interactions with the use of diclofenac sodium topical solution have not been studied. The following drug interactions [sections 7.1 to 7.7] are noted for oral diclofenac sodium.

7.1 Aspirin

When diclofenac is administered with aspirin, the binding of diclofenac to protein is reduced, although the clearance of free diclofenac is not altered. The clinical significance of this interaction is not known; however, as with other NSAIDs, concomitant administration of diclofenac and aspirin is not generally recommended because of the potential of increased adverse effects.

7.2 Anticoagulants

The effects of anticoagulants such as warfarin and NSAIDs on GI bleeding are synergistic, such that users of both drugs together have a risk of serious GI bleeding higher than users of either drug alone.

7.3 ACE-Inhibitors

NSAIDs may diminish the antihypertensive effect of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Consider this interaction in patients taking NSAIDs concomitantly with ACE-inhibitors.

7.4 Diuretics

Clinical studies, as well as postmarketing observations, have shown that NSAIDs can reduce the natriuretic effect of furosemide and thiazides in some patients. The response has been attributed to inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis. During concomitant therapy with NSAIDs, observe the patient closely for signs of renal failure [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)] , as well as to assure diuretic efficacy.

7.5 Lithium

NSAIDs have produced an elevation of plasma lithium levels and a reduction in renal lithium clearance. The mean minimum lithium concentration increased 15% and the renal clearance was decreased by approximately 20%. These effects have been attributed to inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis by the NSAID. Thus, when NSAIDs, including diclofenac, and lithium are administered concurrently, observe patients carefully for signs of lithium toxicity.

7.6 Methotrexate

NSAIDs have been reported to competitively inhibit methotrexate accumulation in rabbit kidney slices. This may indicate that they could enhance the toxicity of methotrexate. Use caution when NSAIDs, including diclofenac, are administered concomitantly with methotrexate.

7.7 Cyclosporine

Diclofenac, like other NSAIDs, may affect renal prostaglandins and increase the toxicity of certain drugs. Therefore, concomitant therapy with diclofenac may increase cyclosporine’s nephrotoxicity. Use caution when diclofenac is administered concomitantly with cyclosporine.

7.8 Oral Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs

Concomitant use of oral NSAIDs with diclofenac sodium topical solution has been evaluated in one Phase 3 controlled trial and in combination with oral diclofenac, compared to oral diclofenac alone, resulted in a higher rate of rectal hemorrhage (3% vs. less than 1%), and more frequent abnormal creatinine (12% vs. 7%), urea (20% vs. 12) and hemoglobin (13% vs. 9%). Therefore, do not use combination therapy with diclofenac sodium topical solution and an oral NSAID unless the benefit outweighs the risk and conduct periodic laboratory evaluations.

7.9 Topical Treatments

Instruct patients that before applying sunscreen, insect repellant, lotion, moisturizer, cosmetics, or other topical medication to the same skin surface of the knee treated with diclofenac sodium topical solution, they must wait until the treated area is completely dry.

8. USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category C prior to 30 weeks gestation; Category D starting 30 weeks gestation.

Teratogenic Effects:

There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of diclofenac sodium topical solution in pregnant women. Diclofenac sodium topical solution should not be used by pregnant women as its safe use has not been adequately determined and starting at 30 weeks gestation, diclofenac and other NSAIDs should be avoided by pregnant women as premature closure of the ductus arteriosus in the fetus may occur. Developmental studies in animals demonstrated that diclofenac sodium administration did not produce teratogenicity despite the induction of maternal toxicity and fetal toxicity in mice at doses up to 20 mg/kg/day (0.6-fold the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD] of 154 mg/day based on body surface area comparison), and in rats and rabbits at doses up to 10 mg/kg/day (approximately 0.6-fold and 1.3-fold the MRHD, respectively). Published reproductive and developmental studies of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, the solvent used in diclofenac sodium topical solution) are equivocal as to potential teratogenicity.

Nonteratogenic Effects:

In rats, maternally toxic doses of diclofenac were associated with dystocia, prolonged gestation, reduced fetal weights and growth, and reduced fetal survival.

8.2 Labor and Delivery

The effects of diclofenac sodium topical solution on labor and delivery in pregnant women are unknown. In rat studies maternal exposure to diclofenac, as with other NSAID drugs, known to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis, increased the incidence of dystocia, delayed parturition, and decreased offspring survival.

8.3 Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk; however, there is a case report in the literature indicating that diclofenac can be detected at low levels in breast milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from diclofenac sodium topical solution, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

8.4 Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

8.5 Geriatric Use

Of the 911 patients treated with diclofenac sodium topical solution in seven controlled Phase 3 clinical trials, 444 subjects were 65 years of age and over. There was no age-related difference in the incidence of adverse events. Of the 793 patients treated with diclofenac sodium topical solution in one open-labeled safety trial, 334 subjects were 65 years of age and over including 107 subjects 75 and over. There was no difference in the incidence of adverse events with long-term exposure to diclofenac sodium topical solution for this elderly population. As with any NSAID, use caution in treating the elderly (65 years and older) and it may be useful to monitor renal function since they are more likely to have decreased baseline renal function.

10. OVERDOSAGE

There have been no known experiences of overdose with diclofenac sodium topical solution.

Symptoms following acute NSAID overdose are usually limited to lethargy, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, and epigastric pain, which are generally reversible with supportive care. Gastrointestinal bleeding can occur. Hypertension, acute renal failure, respiratory depression and coma may occur, but are rare. Anaphylactoid reactions have been reported with therapeutic ingestion of NSAIDs, and may occur following an overdose.

Manage patients using symptomatic and supportive care following an NSAID overdose. There are no specific antidotes. Emesis is not recommended due to a possibility of aspiration and subsequent respiratory irritation by DMSO contained in diclofenac sodium topical solution. Activated charcoal (60 to 100 g in adults, 1 to 2 g/kg in children) and/or osmotic cathartic may be indicated in patients seen within 4 hours of ingestion with symptoms or following a large overdose (5 to 10 times the usual dose). Forced diureses, alkalinization of urine, hemodialysis, or hemoperfusion may not be useful due to high protein binding.

For additional information about overdose treatment, call a poison control center (1-800-222-1222).

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